Tortura Synonyme für "tortura"

tortura [torˈtura] SUBST f. 1. tortura (suplicio): tortura · Folter f. sufrir torturas · gefoltert werden. 2. tortura (oblicuidad): tortura · Schrägheit f. tortura · Neigung f. Übersetzung für 'tortura' im kostenlosen Italienisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Sin olvidar que la tortura y el maltrato de personas sospechosas también son moneda corriente. expand_more Folterungen und Misshandlungen verdächtiger​. Italienisch-Deutsch Übersetzung für "tortura". "tortura" Deutsch Übersetzung. „​tortura“: femminile. tortura. [torˈtuːra]femminile | Femininum f. Übersicht aller. Ein Mindestmaß an Folter, welches mit Worten nicht vollständig beschreiben werden kann. No es sencillo resistir la tortura. Es ist nicht einfach, Folter zu.

Tortura

Divina ` enim vix ferre videtur juftitia, fi juftum ac expeditum criminum inveftigandorum tortura foret medium, a DEO illam in S. Literis filentio fuiffe præteritam. Diffentit autor Differtat de tortura ex foris Christianorum profcribenda, c. r. § CARPz.Q. 6. Boce R dequaft. cap. 6. m. 4. aliique plures. arg. /. ///?. ff. de. tortura [torˈtura] SUBST f. 1. tortura (suplicio): tortura · Folter f. sufrir torturas · gefoltert werden. 2. tortura (oblicuidad): tortura · Schrägheit f. tortura · Neigung f. This revised definition Tablet Spiele Kostenlos psychological torture stating: "Expresses concern that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders definition of posttraumatic stress disorder does not include those forms of psychological torture in which the physical integrity of a person is not threatened. This torture occurred to break the bond between a master and his slave. He argued for Beste Spielothek in Neuenhinzenhausen finden alternative and more humane procedure, in which the accused person would be required to swear an oath of innocence upon the "holy Gospel that he Beste Spielothek in Kriegsdorf finden not commit [the crime] which is laid against him and from that moment on the matter is [to be Explodiac at an end". Healy Retrieved 23 March Civilian Combatant Freedom from genocide Prisoner of war Wartime sexual violence. McCoy, Alfred An Adventures In Wonderland from a superior officer or a public authority may not be invoked as a justification of torture. Furthermore, if some one utters with his lips Www Play is not in his Tortura, it is Tortura known that he is not confessing, he is merely speaking.

Torture, which uses physical or moral violence to extract confessions, punish the guilty, frighten opponents, or satisfy hatred is contrary to respect for the person and for human dignity In times past, cruel practices were commonly used by legitimate governments to maintain law and order, often without protest from the Pastors of the Church, who themselves adopted in their own tribunals the prescriptions of Roman law concerning torture.

Regrettable as these facts are, the Church always taught the duty of clemency and mercy. She forbade clerics to shed blood. In recent times it has become evident that these cruel practices were neither necessary for public order nor in conformity with the legitimate rights of the human person.

On the contrary, these practices led to ones even more degrading. It is necessary to work for their abolition.

We must pray for the victims and their tormentors. The prevalent view among jurists of sharia law is that torture is not permitted under any circumstances.

Torture has no presence within halakha Jewish law. There did once exist a system of capital and corporal punishment in Judaism , as well as a flagellation statute for non-capital offences, but it was all abolished by the Sanhedrin during the Second Temple period.

Maimonides issued a ruling in the case of a man who was ordered by a beth din religious court to divorce his wife and refused that "we coerce him until he states 'I want to.

Article 5 states, "No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The most relevant articles are Articles 1, 2, 3, and For the purposes of this Convention, the word "torture" means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.

It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions. This article is without prejudice to any international instrument or national legislation which does or may contain provisions of wider application.

Each State Party shall take effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its jurisdiction.

No exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency , may be invoked as a justification of torture.

An order from a superior officer or a public authority may not be invoked as a justification of torture. No State Party shall expel, return "refouler" or extradite a person to another State where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture.

For the purpose of determining whether there are such grounds, the competent authorities shall take into account all relevant considerations including, where applicable, the existence in the State concerned of a consistent pattern of gross, flagrant or mass violations of human rights.

Each State Party shall undertake to prevent in any territory under its jurisdiction other acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment which do not amount to torture as defined in Article I when such acts are committed by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.

In particular, the obligations contained in articles 10, 11, 12 and 13 shall apply with the substitution for references to torture of references to other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

The provisions of this Convention are without prejudice to the provisions of any other international instrument or national law which prohibits cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment or which relates to extradition or expulsion.

As stated in Article 1, the purpose of the protocol is to "establish a system of regular visits undertaken by independent international and national bodies to places where people are deprived of their liberty, in order to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

The United Nations Commission on Human Rights in decided to appoint an expert, a special rapporteur , to examine questions relevant to torture.

The position has been extended up to date. The Rome Statute , which established the International Criminal Court ICC , provides for criminal prosecution of individuals responsible for genocide , war crimes , and crimes against humanity.

The statute defines torture as "intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, upon a person in the custody or under the control of the accused; except that torture shall not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions".

Under Article 7 of the statute, torture may be considered a crime against humanity "when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack".

The ICC came into existence on 1 July [94] and can only prosecute crimes committed on or after that date. The four Geneva Conventions provide protection for people who fall into enemy hands.

The conventions do not clearly divide people into combatant and non-combatant roles. The conventions refer to:.

All treaties states in Article 3, in similar wording, that in a non-international armed conflict, "Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms GCI covers wounded combatants in an international armed conflict.

Under Article 12, members of the armed forces who are sick or wounded "shall be respected and protected in all circumstances. They shall be treated humanely and cared for by the Party to the conflict in whose power they may be, without any adverse distinction founded on sex, race, nationality, religion, political opinions, or any other similar criteria.

Any attempts upon their lives, or violence to their persons, shall be strictly prohibited; in particular, they shall not be murdered or exterminated, subjected to torture or to biological experiments".

GCII covers shipwreck survivors at sea in an international armed conflict. Under Article 12, persons "who are at sea and who are wounded, sick or shipwrecked, shall be respected and protected in all circumstances, it being understood that the term "shipwreck" means shipwreck from any cause and includes forced landings at sea by or from aircraft.

Such persons shall be treated humanely and cared for by the Parties to the conflict in whose power they may be, without any adverse distinction founded on sex, race, nationality, religion, political opinions, or any other similar criteria.

In particular, Article 17 says that "No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion, may be inflicted on prisoners of war to secure from them information of any kind whatever.

Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted or exposed to unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind.

GCIV covers most civilians in an international armed conflict, and says they are usually "Protected Persons" see exemptions section immediately after this for those who are not.

Under Article 32, civilians have the right to protection from "murder, torture, corporal punishments, mutilation, and medical or scientific experiments Where in the territory of a Party to the conflict, the latter is satisfied that an individual protected person is definitely suspected of or engaged in activities hostile to the security of the State, such individual person shall not be entitled to claim such rights and privileges under the present Convention [ie GCIV] as would Also, nationals of a State not bound by the Convention are not protected by it, and nationals of a neutral State in the territory of a combatant State, and nationals of a co-belligerent State, cannot claim the protection of GCIV if their home state has normal diplomatic representation in the State that holds them Article 4 , as their diplomatic representatives can take steps to protect them.

The requirement to treat persons with "humanity" implies that it is still prohibited to torture individuals not protected by the Convention.

The George W. Bush administration afforded fewer protections, under GCIII, to detainees in the " War on Terror " by codifying the legal status of an " unlawful combatant ".

If there is a question of whether a person is a lawful combatant, he or she must be treated as a POW "until their status has been determined by a competent tribunal" GCIII Article 5.

If the tribunal decides that he is an unlawful combatant, he is not considered a protected person under GCIII. However, if he is a protected person under GCIV he still has some protection under GCIV and must be "treated with humanity and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed by the present Convention" GCIV Article 5.

There are two additional protocols to the Geneva Convention: Protocol I , relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts and Protocol II , relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts.

These clarify and extend the definitions in some areas, but to date, many countries, including the United States, have either not signed them or have not ratified them.

In Article 5, the protocol explicitly involves "the appointment of Protecting Powers and of their substitute" to monitor that the Parties to the conflict are enforcing the Conventions.

Under the original conventions, combatants without a recognizable insignia could be treated as war criminals, and potentially be executed.

It also mentions spies and defines who is a mercenary. Mercenaries and spies are considered an unlawful combatant, and not protected by the same conventions.

Protocol II "develops and supplements Article 3 [relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts] common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August without modifying its existing conditions of application" Article 1.

Any person who does not take part in or ceased to take part in hostilities is entitled to humane treatment. Among the acts prohibited against these persons are, "Violence to the life, health and physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular, murder as well as cruel treatment such as torture, mutilation or any form of corporal punishment" Article 4.

These have a bearing on torture, but no other clauses explicitly mention torture. In accordance with the optional UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners , " corporal punishment , punishment by placing in a dark cell, and all cruel, inhuman or degrading punishments shall be completely prohibited as punishments for disciplinary offences.

The treaty was based on the UDHR. It included the provision for a court to interpret the treaty, and Article 3 "Prohibition of torture" stated; "No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

In , the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the five techniques of " sensory deprivation " were not torture as laid out in Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, but were " inhuman or degrading treatment " [] see Accusations of use of torture by United Kingdom for details.

This case occurred nine years before the United Nations Convention Against Torture came into force and had an influence on thinking about what constitutes torture ever since.

Two additional Protocols amended the Convention, which entered into force on 1 March The Convention set up the Committee for the Prevention of Torture to oversee compliance with its provisions.

The Istanbul Protocol , an official UN document, is the first set of international guidelines for documentation of torture and its consequences.

It became a United Nations official document in Under the provisions of OPCAT that entered into force on 22 June independent international and national bodies regularly visit places where people are deprived of their liberty, to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Each state that ratified the OPCAT, according to Article 17, is responsible for creating or maintaining at least one independent national preventive mechanism for torture prevention at the domestic level.

The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture, citing Article 1 of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture , states that it will, "by means of visits, examine the treatment of persons deprived of their liberty with a view to strengthening, if necessary, the protection of such persons from torture and from inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment".

In times of armed conflict between a signatory of the Geneva Conventions and another party, delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC monitor the compliance of signatories to the Geneva Conventions, which includes monitoring the use of torture.

Human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International , the World Organization Against Torture , and Association for the Prevention of Torture work actively to stop the use of torture throughout the world and publish reports on any activities they consider to be torture.

States that ratified the United Nations Convention Against Torture have a treaty obligation to include the provisions into municipal law.

The laws of many states therefore formally prohibit torture. However, such de jure legal provisions are by no means a proof that, de facto , the signatory country does not use torture.

To prevent torture, many legal systems have a right against self-incrimination or explicitly prohibit undue force when dealing with suspects.

The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , of constitutional value, prohibits submitting suspects to any hardship not necessary to secure his or her person.

The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution includes protection against self-incrimination , which states that "[n]o person This serves as the basis of the Miranda warning , which U.

Additionally, the U. Constitution's Eighth Amendment forbids the use of " cruel and unusual punishments ," which is widely interpreted as prohibiting torture.

Finally, 18 U. As the United States recognizes customary international law , or the law of nations , the U. Each State Party shall ensure that any statement which is established to have been made as a result of torture shall not be invoked as evidence in any proceedings, except against a person accused of torture as evidence that the statement was made.

No statement that is verified as having been obtained through torture shall be admissible as evidence in a legal proceeding, except in a legal action taken against a person or persons accused of having elicited it through acts of torture, and only as evidence that the accused obtained such statement by such means.

These provisions have the double dissuasive effect of nullifying any utility in using torture with the purpose of eliciting a confession, as well as confirming that should a person extract statements by torture, this can be used against him or her in criminal proceedings.

As a result, there is no way to know whether or not the resulting statement is actually correct. If any court relies on any evidence obtained from torture regardless of validity, it provides an incentive for state officials to force a confession, creating a marketplace for torture, both domestically and overseas.

Most states have prohibited their legal systems from accepting evidence that is extracted by torture. The question of the use of evidence obtained under torture has arisen in connection with prosecutions during the War on Terror in the United Kingdom and the United States.

In , the United Kingdom's Ambassador to Uzbekistan , Craig Murray , suggested that it was "wrong to use information gleaned from torture".

They ruled that, under English law tradition, "torture and its fruits" could not be used in court. Murray's accusations did not lead to any investigation by his employer, the FCO, and he resigned after disciplinary action was taken against him in The Foreign and Commonwealth Office itself is being investigated by the National Audit Office because of accusations that it has victimized, bullied and intimidated its own staff.

Murray later stated that he felt that he had unwittingly stumbled upon what has been called "torture by proxy". I presumed at the time that these were all Uzbek nationals—that may have been a false presumption.

During a House of Commons debate on 7 July , MP David Davis accused the UK government of outsourcing torture, by allowing Rangzieb Ahmed to leave the country even though they had evidence against him upon which he was later convicted for terrorism to Pakistan, where it is said the Inter-Services Intelligence was given the go-ahead by the British intelligence agencies to torture Ahmed.

Davis further accused the government of trying to gag Ahmed, stopping him coming forward with his accusations after he had been imprisoned back in the UK.

He said, there was "an alleged request to drop his allegations of torture: if he did that, they could get his sentence cut and possibly give him some money.

If this request to drop the torture case is true, it is frankly monstrous. It would at the very least be a criminal misuse of the powers and funds under the Government's Contest strategy, and at worst a conspiracy to pervert the course of justice.

In May , Susan J. Crawford , the official overseeing prosecutions before the Guantanamo military commissions , declined to refer for trial the case of Mohammed al-Qahtani because she said, "we tortured [him].

On 28 October , Guantanamo military judge Stephen R. Henley ruled that the government cannot use statements made as a result of torture in the military commission case against Afghan national Mohammed Jawad.

The judge held that Jawad's alleged confession to throwing a grenade at two U. The government had previously told the judge that Jawad's alleged confession while in Afghan custody was central to the case against him.

Hina Shamsi, staff attorney with the American Civil Liberties Union National Security Project stated: "We welcome the judge's decision that death threats constitute torture and that evidence obtained as a result must be excluded from trial.

Unfortunately, evidence obtained through torture and coercion is pervasive in military commission cases that, by design, disregard the most fundamental due process rights, and no single decision can cure that.

Kaplan ruled evidence obtained under coercion inadmissible. The Judge Rotenberg Center is a school in Canton, Massachusetts that uses the methods of ABA to perform behavior modification in children with developmental disabilities.

Before it was banned in , the center used a device called a Graduated Electronic Decelerator GED to deliver electric skin shocks as aversives. The Judge Rotenberg center has been condemned by the United Nations for torture as a result of this practice.

Six students have died of preventable causes at the school since it opened in Torture has been criticized on humanitarian and moral grounds, on the grounds that evidence extracted by torture is unreliable, and because torture corrupts institutions that tolerate it.

Organizations like Amnesty International argue that the universal legal prohibition is based on a universal philosophical consensus that torture and ill-treatment are repugnant, abhorrent, and immoral.

Some people, such as Alan M. Dershowitz and Mirko Bagaric , have argued the need for information outweighs the moral and ethical arguments against torture.

Geoffrey D. Miller , the American commander in charge of detentions and interrogations, stated " a rapport-based interrogation that recognizes respect and dignity, and having very well-trained interrogators, is the basis by which you develop intelligence rapidly and increase the validity of that intelligence.

The ticking time bomb scenario , a thought experiment , asks what to do to a captured terrorist who has placed a nuclear bomb in a populated area. If the terrorist is tortured, he may explain how to defuse the bomb.

The scenario asks if it is ethical to torture the terrorist. A BBC poll held in 25 nations gauged support for each of the following positions: [].

Often this lessened rejection is found in countries severely and frequently threatened by terrorist attacks. Within nations, there is a clear divide between the positions of members of different ethnic groups, religions, and political affiliations, sometimes reflecting distinctions between groups considering themselves threatened or victimized by terror acts and those from the alleged perpetrator groups.

Differences in general political views also can matter. In practice, so-called "enhanced interrogation" techniques were employed by the CIA in situations that did not involve the "ticking time bomb" scenario that has been the subject of opinion polls and public debate.

In April a former senior U. On 14 February , in an appearance on ABC 's This Week , Vice-President Dick Cheney reiterated his support of waterboarding and " enhanced interrogation " techniques for captured terrorist suspects, saying, "I was and remain a strong proponent of our enhanced interrogation program.

Pressed by the BBC in on his personal view of waterboarding, Presidential Advisor Karl Rove said: "I'm proud that we kept the world safer than it was, by the use of these techniques.

A month investigation by the Guardian and BBC Arabic, published on March , disclosed that "the US sent a veteran of the dirty wars in Central America to oversee Iraqi commando units involved in acts of torture during the American-led occupation.

These American citizens could theoretically be tried by the International Criminal Court even though the US is not a signatory.

But it would have to be referred by the UN security council and, given that the US has a veto on the council, this hypothesis is very improbable.

There is a strong utilitarian argument against torture; namely, that it is ineffective. Information supporting the ineffectiveness of torture goes back centuries.

For example, during witch trials torture was routinely used to try to force subjects to admit their guilt and to identify other witches.

It was found that subjects would make up stories if it meant the torture would cease. There is no scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness.

On the other hand, some have pointed to some specific cases where torture has elicited true information. A famous example of rejection of the use of torture was cited by the Argentine National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons in whose report, Italian general Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa was reputed to have said in connection with the investigation of the disappearance of prime minister Aldo Moro , "Italy can survive the loss of Aldo Moro.

It would not survive the introduction of torture. Before the emergence of modern policing, torture was an important aspect of policing and the use of it was openly sanctioned and acknowledged by the authority.

In the 21st century, even when states sanction their interrogation methods, torturers often work outside the law. For this reason, some prefer methods that, while unpleasant, leave victims alive and unmarked.

A victim with no visible damage may lack credibility when telling tales of torture, whereas a person missing fingernails or eyes can easily prove claims of torture.

Mental torture, however, can leave scars just as deep and long-lasting as physical torture. However, the most common and prevalent form of torture worldwide in both developed and under-developed countries is beating.

Psychological torture uses non-physical methods that cause psychological suffering. Its effects are not immediately apparent unless they alter the behavior of the tortured person.

Since there is no international political consensus on what constitutes psychological torture, it is often overlooked, denied, and referred to by different names.

Psychological torture is less well known than physical torture and tends to be subtle and much easier to conceal. In practice, the distinctions between physical and psychological torture are often blurred.

In contrast, psychological torture is directed at the psyche with calculated violations of psychological needs, along with deep damage to psychological structures and the breakage of beliefs underpinning normal sanity.

Torturers often inflict both types of torture in combination to compound the associated effects. Psychological torture also includes deliberate use of extreme stressors and situations such as mock execution , shunning , violation of deep-seated social or sexual norms and taboos , or extended solitary confinement.

Because psychological torture needs no physical violence to be effective, it is possible to induce severe psychological pain, suffering, and trauma with no externally visible effects.

Rape and other forms of sexual abuse are often used as methods of torture for interrogative or punitive purposes. In medical torture , medical practitioners use torture to judge what victims can endure, to apply treatments that enhance torture, or act as torturers in their own right.

In recent years, however, there has been a push to end medical complicity in torture through both international and state-based legal strategies, as well as litigations against individual physicians.

Pharmacological torture is the use of drugs to produce psychological or physical pain or discomfort. Tickle torture is an unusual form of torture which nevertheless has been documented, and can be both physically and psychologically painful.

The Judge Rotenberg Educational Center used a device called the Graduated Electronic Decelerator to modify behavior in autistic children.

The United Nations condemned the use of the device as torture. The consequences of torture reach far beyond immediate pain. Many victims suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , which includes symptoms such as flashbacks or intrusive thoughts , severe anxiety, insomnia, nightmares, depression and memory lapses.

Torture victims often feel guilt and shame, triggered by the humiliation they have endured. Many feel that they have betrayed themselves or their friends and family.

All such symptoms are normal human responses to abnormal and inhuman treatment. Organizations like Freedom from Torture and the Center for Victims of Torture try to help survivors of torture obtain medical treatment and to gain forensic medical evidence to obtain political asylum in a safe country or to prosecute the perpetrators.

Torture is often difficult to prove, particularly when some time has passed between the event and a medical examination, or when the torturers are immune from prosecution.

Many torturers around the world use methods designed to have a maximum psychological impact while leaving only minimal physical traces.

Medical and Human Rights Organizations worldwide have collaborated to produce the Istanbul Protocol , a document designed to outline common torture methods, consequences of torture, and medico-legal examination techniques.

Typically deaths due to torture are shown in an autopsy as being due to "natural causes" like heart attack, inflammation, or embolism due to extreme stress.

For survivors, torture often leads to lasting mental and physical health problems. Physical problems can be wide-ranging, e.

On 19 August , the American Psychology Association APA voted to bar participation, to intervene to stop, and to report involvement in a wide variety of interrogation techniques as torture, including "using mock executions , simulated drowning, sexual and religious humiliation, stress positions or sleep deprivation", as well as "the exploitation of prisoners' phobias, the use of mind-altering drugs, hooding , forced nakedness, the use of dogs to frighten detainees, exposing prisoners to extreme heat and cold, physical assault and threatening the use of such techniques against a prisoner or a prisoner's family.

However, the APA rejected a stronger resolution that sought to prohibit "all psychologist involvement, either direct or indirect, in any interrogations at U.

The APA echoed the Bush administration by condemning isolation, sleep deprivation, and sensory deprivation or over-stimulation only when they are likely to cause lasting harm.

Psychiatric treatment of torture-related medical problems might require a wide range of expertise and often specialized experience. Common treatments are psychotropic medication , e.

The aim of rehabilitation is to empower the torture victim to resume as full a life as possible. Rebuilding the life of someone whose dignity has been destroyed takes time and as a result, long-term material, medical, psychological and social support is needed.

Treatment must be a coordinated effort that covers both physical and psychological aspects. It is important to take into consideration the patients' needs, problems, expectations, views, and cultural references.

The consequences of torture are likely to be influenced by many internal and external factors. Therefore, rehabilitation needs to employ different treatment approaches, taking into account the victims' individual needs, as well as the cultural, social and political environment.

Rehabilitation centres around the world, notably the members of the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims , commonly offer multi-disciplinary support and counselling, including:.

In the case of asylum seekers and refugees, the services may also include assisting in the documentation of torture for the asylum decision, language classes and help in finding somewhere to live and work.

In the worst case, torture can affect several generations. The physical and mental after-effects of torture often place great strain on the entire family and society.

Annie Wilkes Richard Farnsworth Buster Frances Sternhagen Virginia Lauren Bacall Marcia Sindell Graham Jarvis Libby Jerry Potter Pete Thomas Brunelle Anchorman as Tom Brunelle June Christopher Anchorwoman Julie Payne Reporter 1 Archie Hahn Reporter 3 Wendy Bowers Waitress Misery the Pig Learn more More Like This.

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The Mist Horror Sci-Fi Thriller. The Others Horror Mystery Thriller. Edit Storyline Best-selling novelist Paul Sheldon is on his way home from his Colorado hideaway after completing his latest book, when he crashes his car in a freak blizzard.

Taglines: The Tide Has Come. Edit Did You Know? Goofs Sheriff McCain speaks of a "dead branch" as a possible cause of the tree's being broken, but the entire tree is clearly snapped off halfway up the trunk; there is not merely a broken branch.

User Reviews Gripping Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this. Are they the same? Q: Does Stephen King have a cameo?

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Save Word. Log In. Keep scrolling for more. Choose the Right Synonym for torture Verb afflict , try , torment , torture , rack mean to inflict on a person something that is hard to bear.

Examples of torture in a Sentence Noun Waiting is just torture for me. Listening to him can be torture. Verb The report revealed that prisoners had been repeatedly tortured.

Tortura A BBC poll held in 25 nations gauged support for each of the following positions: []. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Torture. Beste Spielothek in Kappeler-Neufeld finden White, a shy, friendless teenage girl who is sheltered by her domineering, religious mother, unleashes Tortura telekinetic powers after being humiliated by her classmates at her senior prom. In Article 5, the protocol explicitly involves "the appointment of Protecting Powers and of their substitute" to monitor that the Parties to the conflict are enforcing the Conventions. Medieval Lol Koffer early modern European courts used torture, depending on the crime of the accused and his or her Tortura status. Responsabile dell'arresto e della tortura di blogger/giornalisti. Verantwortlich für die Festnahme und Folter von Bloggern und Journalisten. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'tortura' in LEOs Spanisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Divina ` enim vix ferre videtur juftitia, fi juftum ac expeditum criminum inveftigandorum tortura foret medium, a DEO illam in S. Literis filentio fuiffe præteritam. Diffentit autor Differtat de tortura ex foris Christianorum profcribenda, c. r. § CARPz.Q. 6. Boce R dequaft. cap. 6. m. 4. aliique plures. arg. /. ///?. ff. de. La Tortura ist ein Latin Pop-Reggaeton-Lied der kolumbianischen Sängerin Shakira im Duett mit Alejandro Sanz. Das Lied wurde am Mai als erste.

Best-selling novelist Paul Sheldon is on his way home from his Colorado hideaway after completing his latest book, when he crashes his car in a freak blizzard.

Paul is critically injured, but is rescued by former nurse Annie Wilkes, Paul's "number one fan", who takes Paul back to her remote house in the mountains without bothering to tell anybody.

Unfortunately for Paul, Annie is also a headcase. When she discovers that Paul has killed off the heroine in her favorite novels, her reaction leaves Paul shattered literally Written by Andrew Backhouse andback Misery is a dark, but witty venture into Stephen King territory.

It's about a popular novelist who crashes his car on a snowy mountain road and is rescued by a nurse who claims she is his number one fan.

As the time goes by, he realizes she has no intention of letting him leave. Tension is kept mostly throughout there are some predictable moments And the performances are also a major plus.

James Caan is very easy to empathize with, and he manages to keep his cynical sense of humor. Richard Farnsworth, as a grizzled sheriff was a nice addition to the film since his character didn't exist in the book.

He also has a nice sense of humor, and he's the kind of guy who you want to root for. But the most amazing performance is from Kathy Bates, who treads a fine line alternating between sweet and lovable to amazingly evil.

She won an Oscar for this movie, and whole-heartedly deserved it. Side note: This is one of the few films which took an Oscar, that you can actually say the Academy had the guts to give out.

Can anyone name another horror film which won such a notable prize? We sometimes feel his pain, and it is so much fun to hate this woman Either way, enjoy!

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Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. After a famous author is rescued from a car crash by a fan of his novels, he comes to realize that the care he is receiving is only the beginning of a nightmare of captivity and abuse.

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Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. Keep scrolling for more. Choose the Right Synonym for torture Verb afflict , try , torment , torture , rack mean to inflict on a person something that is hard to bear.

Examples of torture in a Sentence Noun Waiting is just torture for me. Listening to him can be torture. Verb The report revealed that prisoners had been repeatedly tortured.

Don't torture yourself over the mistake. Circuit Court of Appeals to drop the charges. Sanctions Shake Syria, Hasten Economic Meltdown," 12 June Trump came to power advocating torture and killing the families of terrorists.

First Known Use of torture Noun , in the meaning defined at sense 2b Verb , in the meaning defined at sense 1.

Learn More about torture. Time Traveler for torture The first known use of torture was in See more words from the same year. More typical was to bribe the executioner to administer hasty death to the victim after a small number of dramatic slices inflicted for showmanship.

Impalement was a method of torture and execution whereby a person is pierced with a long stake. The penetration can be through the sides, from the rectum , or through the mouth or vagina.

This method would lead to slow, painful, death. Often, the victim was hoisted into the air after partial impalement.

Gravity and the victim's own struggles would cause him to slide down the pole. Death could take many days. Impalement was frequently practiced in Asia and Europe throughout the Middle Ages.

The breaking wheel was a torturous capital punishment device used in the Middle Ages and early modern times for public execution by cudgeling to death, especially in France and Germany.

In France the condemned were placed on a cart-wheel with their limbs stretched out along the spokes over two sturdy wooden beams. The wheel was made to slowly revolve.

Through the openings between the spokes, the executioner hit the victim with an iron hammer that could easily break the victim's bones.

This process was repeated several times per limb. Once his bones were broken, he was left on the wheel to die. It could take hours, even days, before shock and dehydration caused death.

The punishment was abolished in Germany as late as The word 'torture' comes from the French torture , originating in the Late Latin tortura and ultimately deriving the past participle of torquere meaning 'to twist'.

This term is derived from torture's use in criminal cases: as the accused is tortured, the torturers would typically ask questions to the accused in an effort to learn more about the crime.

Throughout the Early Middle Ages , the Catholic Church generally opposed the use of torture during criminal proceedings.

This is evident from a letter sent by Pope Saint Nicholas the Great to Khan Boris of the Bulgars in AD , delivered in response to a series of questions from the former and concerned with the ongoing Christianisation of Bulgaria.

Ad Consulta Vestra as entitled in Latin declared judicial torture to be a practice that was fundamentally contrary to divine law. He argued for an alternative and more humane procedure, in which the accused person would be required to swear an oath of innocence upon the "holy Gospel that he did not commit [the crime] which is laid against him and from that moment on the matter is [to be put] at an end".

For everything which is not voluntary, cannot be good". In the High Middle Ages, the Church became increasingly concerned with the perceived threat posed to its existence by resurgent heresy, in particular, that attributed to a purported sect known as the Cathars.

Consequently, the Church began to enjoin secular rulers to extirpate heresy lest the ruler's Catholic subjects are absolved from their allegiance , and in order to coerce heretics or witnesses "into confessing their errors and accusing others," decided to sanction the use of methods of torture, already utilized by secular governments in other criminal procedures due to the recovery of Roman Law , in the medieval inquisitions.

The modern Church's views regarding torture have changed drastically, largely reverting to the earlier stance.

In , in an address to the 6th International Congress of Penal Law, Pope Pius XII approvingly reiterated the position of Pope Nicholas the Great over a thousand years before him, when his predecessor had unilaterally opposed the use of judicial torture, stating:.

Preliminary juridical proceedings must exclude physical and psychological torture and the use of drugs: first of all, because they violate a natural right, even if the accused is indeed guilty, and secondly because all too often they give rise to erroneous results About eleven hundred years ago, in , the great Pope Nicholas I replied in the following way to a question posed by a people which had just come into contact with Christianity: 'If a thief or a bandit is caught, and denies what is imputed to him, you say among you that the judge should beat him on the head with blows and pierce his sides with iron spikes, until he speaks the truth.

That, neither divine nor human law admits: the confession must not be forced, but spontaneous; it must not be extorted, but voluntary; lastly, if it happens that, after having inflicted these sufferings, you discover absolutely nothing concerning that with which you have charged the accused, are you not ashamed then at least, and do you not recognize how impious your judgment was?

Likewise, if the accused, unable to bear such tortures, admits to crimes which he has not committed, who, I ask you, has the responsibility for such an impiety?

Is it not he who forced him to such a deceitful confession? Furthermore, if some one utters with his lips what is not in his mind, it is well known that he is not confessing, he is merely speaking.

Put away these things, then, and hate from the bottom of your heart what heretofore you have had the folly to practice; in truth, what fruit did you then draw from that of which you are now ashamed?

Who would not wish that, during the long period of time elapsed since then, justice had never laid this rule aside! The need to recall the warning given eleven hundred years ago is a sad sign of the miscarriages of juridical practice in the twentieth century.

Thus, the Catechism of the Catholic Church published in condemns the use of torture as a grave violation of human rights.

In No. Torture, which uses physical or moral violence to extract confessions, punish the guilty, frighten opponents, or satisfy hatred is contrary to respect for the person and for human dignity In times past, cruel practices were commonly used by legitimate governments to maintain law and order, often without protest from the Pastors of the Church, who themselves adopted in their own tribunals the prescriptions of Roman law concerning torture.

Regrettable as these facts are, the Church always taught the duty of clemency and mercy. She forbade clerics to shed blood.

In recent times it has become evident that these cruel practices were neither necessary for public order nor in conformity with the legitimate rights of the human person.

On the contrary, these practices led to ones even more degrading. It is necessary to work for their abolition. We must pray for the victims and their tormentors.

The prevalent view among jurists of sharia law is that torture is not permitted under any circumstances. Torture has no presence within halakha Jewish law.

There did once exist a system of capital and corporal punishment in Judaism , as well as a flagellation statute for non-capital offences, but it was all abolished by the Sanhedrin during the Second Temple period.

Maimonides issued a ruling in the case of a man who was ordered by a beth din religious court to divorce his wife and refused that "we coerce him until he states 'I want to.

Article 5 states, "No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. The most relevant articles are Articles 1, 2, 3, and For the purposes of this Convention, the word "torture" means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.

It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions. This article is without prejudice to any international instrument or national legislation which does or may contain provisions of wider application.

Each State Party shall take effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its jurisdiction.

No exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency , may be invoked as a justification of torture.

An order from a superior officer or a public authority may not be invoked as a justification of torture.

No State Party shall expel, return "refouler" or extradite a person to another State where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture.

For the purpose of determining whether there are such grounds, the competent authorities shall take into account all relevant considerations including, where applicable, the existence in the State concerned of a consistent pattern of gross, flagrant or mass violations of human rights.

Each State Party shall undertake to prevent in any territory under its jurisdiction other acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment which do not amount to torture as defined in Article I when such acts are committed by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.

In particular, the obligations contained in articles 10, 11, 12 and 13 shall apply with the substitution for references to torture of references to other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

The provisions of this Convention are without prejudice to the provisions of any other international instrument or national law which prohibits cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment or which relates to extradition or expulsion.

As stated in Article 1, the purpose of the protocol is to "establish a system of regular visits undertaken by independent international and national bodies to places where people are deprived of their liberty, in order to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

The United Nations Commission on Human Rights in decided to appoint an expert, a special rapporteur , to examine questions relevant to torture.

The position has been extended up to date. The Rome Statute , which established the International Criminal Court ICC , provides for criminal prosecution of individuals responsible for genocide , war crimes , and crimes against humanity.

The statute defines torture as "intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, upon a person in the custody or under the control of the accused; except that torture shall not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions".

Under Article 7 of the statute, torture may be considered a crime against humanity "when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack".

The ICC came into existence on 1 July [94] and can only prosecute crimes committed on or after that date. The four Geneva Conventions provide protection for people who fall into enemy hands.

The conventions do not clearly divide people into combatant and non-combatant roles. The conventions refer to:. All treaties states in Article 3, in similar wording, that in a non-international armed conflict, "Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms GCI covers wounded combatants in an international armed conflict.

Under Article 12, members of the armed forces who are sick or wounded "shall be respected and protected in all circumstances.

They shall be treated humanely and cared for by the Party to the conflict in whose power they may be, without any adverse distinction founded on sex, race, nationality, religion, political opinions, or any other similar criteria.

Any attempts upon their lives, or violence to their persons, shall be strictly prohibited; in particular, they shall not be murdered or exterminated, subjected to torture or to biological experiments".

GCII covers shipwreck survivors at sea in an international armed conflict. Under Article 12, persons "who are at sea and who are wounded, sick or shipwrecked, shall be respected and protected in all circumstances, it being understood that the term "shipwreck" means shipwreck from any cause and includes forced landings at sea by or from aircraft.

Such persons shall be treated humanely and cared for by the Parties to the conflict in whose power they may be, without any adverse distinction founded on sex, race, nationality, religion, political opinions, or any other similar criteria.

In particular, Article 17 says that "No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion, may be inflicted on prisoners of war to secure from them information of any kind whatever.

Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted or exposed to unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind.

GCIV covers most civilians in an international armed conflict, and says they are usually "Protected Persons" see exemptions section immediately after this for those who are not.

Under Article 32, civilians have the right to protection from "murder, torture, corporal punishments, mutilation, and medical or scientific experiments Where in the territory of a Party to the conflict, the latter is satisfied that an individual protected person is definitely suspected of or engaged in activities hostile to the security of the State, such individual person shall not be entitled to claim such rights and privileges under the present Convention [ie GCIV] as would Also, nationals of a State not bound by the Convention are not protected by it, and nationals of a neutral State in the territory of a combatant State, and nationals of a co-belligerent State, cannot claim the protection of GCIV if their home state has normal diplomatic representation in the State that holds them Article 4 , as their diplomatic representatives can take steps to protect them.

The requirement to treat persons with "humanity" implies that it is still prohibited to torture individuals not protected by the Convention.

The George W. Bush administration afforded fewer protections, under GCIII, to detainees in the " War on Terror " by codifying the legal status of an " unlawful combatant ".

If there is a question of whether a person is a lawful combatant, he or she must be treated as a POW "until their status has been determined by a competent tribunal" GCIII Article 5.

If the tribunal decides that he is an unlawful combatant, he is not considered a protected person under GCIII.

However, if he is a protected person under GCIV he still has some protection under GCIV and must be "treated with humanity and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed by the present Convention" GCIV Article 5.

There are two additional protocols to the Geneva Convention: Protocol I , relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts and Protocol II , relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts.

These clarify and extend the definitions in some areas, but to date, many countries, including the United States, have either not signed them or have not ratified them.

In Article 5, the protocol explicitly involves "the appointment of Protecting Powers and of their substitute" to monitor that the Parties to the conflict are enforcing the Conventions.

Under the original conventions, combatants without a recognizable insignia could be treated as war criminals, and potentially be executed.

It also mentions spies and defines who is a mercenary. Mercenaries and spies are considered an unlawful combatant, and not protected by the same conventions.

Protocol II "develops and supplements Article 3 [relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts] common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August without modifying its existing conditions of application" Article 1.

Any person who does not take part in or ceased to take part in hostilities is entitled to humane treatment. Among the acts prohibited against these persons are, "Violence to the life, health and physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular, murder as well as cruel treatment such as torture, mutilation or any form of corporal punishment" Article 4.

These have a bearing on torture, but no other clauses explicitly mention torture. In accordance with the optional UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners , " corporal punishment , punishment by placing in a dark cell, and all cruel, inhuman or degrading punishments shall be completely prohibited as punishments for disciplinary offences.

The treaty was based on the UDHR. It included the provision for a court to interpret the treaty, and Article 3 "Prohibition of torture" stated; "No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

In , the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the five techniques of " sensory deprivation " were not torture as laid out in Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, but were " inhuman or degrading treatment " [] see Accusations of use of torture by United Kingdom for details.

This case occurred nine years before the United Nations Convention Against Torture came into force and had an influence on thinking about what constitutes torture ever since.

Two additional Protocols amended the Convention, which entered into force on 1 March The Convention set up the Committee for the Prevention of Torture to oversee compliance with its provisions.

The Istanbul Protocol , an official UN document, is the first set of international guidelines for documentation of torture and its consequences.

It became a United Nations official document in Under the provisions of OPCAT that entered into force on 22 June independent international and national bodies regularly visit places where people are deprived of their liberty, to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Each state that ratified the OPCAT, according to Article 17, is responsible for creating or maintaining at least one independent national preventive mechanism for torture prevention at the domestic level.

The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture, citing Article 1 of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture , states that it will, "by means of visits, examine the treatment of persons deprived of their liberty with a view to strengthening, if necessary, the protection of such persons from torture and from inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment".

In times of armed conflict between a signatory of the Geneva Conventions and another party, delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC monitor the compliance of signatories to the Geneva Conventions, which includes monitoring the use of torture.

Human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International , the World Organization Against Torture , and Association for the Prevention of Torture work actively to stop the use of torture throughout the world and publish reports on any activities they consider to be torture.

States that ratified the United Nations Convention Against Torture have a treaty obligation to include the provisions into municipal law. The laws of many states therefore formally prohibit torture.

However, such de jure legal provisions are by no means a proof that, de facto , the signatory country does not use torture. To prevent torture, many legal systems have a right against self-incrimination or explicitly prohibit undue force when dealing with suspects.

The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , of constitutional value, prohibits submitting suspects to any hardship not necessary to secure his or her person.

The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution includes protection against self-incrimination , which states that "[n]o person This serves as the basis of the Miranda warning , which U.

Additionally, the U. Constitution's Eighth Amendment forbids the use of " cruel and unusual punishments ," which is widely interpreted as prohibiting torture.

Finally, 18 U. As the United States recognizes customary international law , or the law of nations , the U.

Each State Party shall ensure that any statement which is established to have been made as a result of torture shall not be invoked as evidence in any proceedings, except against a person accused of torture as evidence that the statement was made.

No statement that is verified as having been obtained through torture shall be admissible as evidence in a legal proceeding, except in a legal action taken against a person or persons accused of having elicited it through acts of torture, and only as evidence that the accused obtained such statement by such means.

These provisions have the double dissuasive effect of nullifying any utility in using torture with the purpose of eliciting a confession, as well as confirming that should a person extract statements by torture, this can be used against him or her in criminal proceedings.

As a result, there is no way to know whether or not the resulting statement is actually correct. If any court relies on any evidence obtained from torture regardless of validity, it provides an incentive for state officials to force a confession, creating a marketplace for torture, both domestically and overseas.

Most states have prohibited their legal systems from accepting evidence that is extracted by torture. The question of the use of evidence obtained under torture has arisen in connection with prosecutions during the War on Terror in the United Kingdom and the United States.

In , the United Kingdom's Ambassador to Uzbekistan , Craig Murray , suggested that it was "wrong to use information gleaned from torture".

They ruled that, under English law tradition, "torture and its fruits" could not be used in court. Murray's accusations did not lead to any investigation by his employer, the FCO, and he resigned after disciplinary action was taken against him in The Foreign and Commonwealth Office itself is being investigated by the National Audit Office because of accusations that it has victimized, bullied and intimidated its own staff.

Murray later stated that he felt that he had unwittingly stumbled upon what has been called "torture by proxy".

I presumed at the time that these were all Uzbek nationals—that may have been a false presumption. During a House of Commons debate on 7 July , MP David Davis accused the UK government of outsourcing torture, by allowing Rangzieb Ahmed to leave the country even though they had evidence against him upon which he was later convicted for terrorism to Pakistan, where it is said the Inter-Services Intelligence was given the go-ahead by the British intelligence agencies to torture Ahmed.

Davis further accused the government of trying to gag Ahmed, stopping him coming forward with his accusations after he had been imprisoned back in the UK.

He said, there was "an alleged request to drop his allegations of torture: if he did that, they could get his sentence cut and possibly give him some money.

If this request to drop the torture case is true, it is frankly monstrous. It would at the very least be a criminal misuse of the powers and funds under the Government's Contest strategy, and at worst a conspiracy to pervert the course of justice.

In May , Susan J. Crawford , the official overseeing prosecutions before the Guantanamo military commissions , declined to refer for trial the case of Mohammed al-Qahtani because she said, "we tortured [him].

On 28 October , Guantanamo military judge Stephen R. Henley ruled that the government cannot use statements made as a result of torture in the military commission case against Afghan national Mohammed Jawad.

The judge held that Jawad's alleged confession to throwing a grenade at two U. The government had previously told the judge that Jawad's alleged confession while in Afghan custody was central to the case against him.

Hina Shamsi, staff attorney with the American Civil Liberties Union National Security Project stated: "We welcome the judge's decision that death threats constitute torture and that evidence obtained as a result must be excluded from trial.

Unfortunately, evidence obtained through torture and coercion is pervasive in military commission cases that, by design, disregard the most fundamental due process rights, and no single decision can cure that.

Kaplan ruled evidence obtained under coercion inadmissible. The Judge Rotenberg Center is a school in Canton, Massachusetts that uses the methods of ABA to perform behavior modification in children with developmental disabilities.

Before it was banned in , the center used a device called a Graduated Electronic Decelerator GED to deliver electric skin shocks as aversives.

The Judge Rotenberg center has been condemned by the United Nations for torture as a result of this practice. Six students have died of preventable causes at the school since it opened in Torture has been criticized on humanitarian and moral grounds, on the grounds that evidence extracted by torture is unreliable, and because torture corrupts institutions that tolerate it.

Organizations like Amnesty International argue that the universal legal prohibition is based on a universal philosophical consensus that torture and ill-treatment are repugnant, abhorrent, and immoral.

Some people, such as Alan M. Dershowitz and Mirko Bagaric , have argued the need for information outweighs the moral and ethical arguments against torture.

Geoffrey D. Miller , the American commander in charge of detentions and interrogations, stated " a rapport-based interrogation that recognizes respect and dignity, and having very well-trained interrogators, is the basis by which you develop intelligence rapidly and increase the validity of that intelligence.

The ticking time bomb scenario , a thought experiment , asks what to do to a captured terrorist who has placed a nuclear bomb in a populated area.

If the terrorist is tortured, he may explain how to defuse the bomb. The scenario asks if it is ethical to torture the terrorist. A BBC poll held in 25 nations gauged support for each of the following positions: [].

Often this lessened rejection is found in countries severely and frequently threatened by terrorist attacks.

Within nations, there is a clear divide between the positions of members of different ethnic groups, religions, and political affiliations, sometimes reflecting distinctions between groups considering themselves threatened or victimized by terror acts and those from the alleged perpetrator groups.

Differences in general political views also can matter. In practice, so-called "enhanced interrogation" techniques were employed by the CIA in situations that did not involve the "ticking time bomb" scenario that has been the subject of opinion polls and public debate.

In April a former senior U. On 14 February , in an appearance on ABC 's This Week , Vice-President Dick Cheney reiterated his support of waterboarding and " enhanced interrogation " techniques for captured terrorist suspects, saying, "I was and remain a strong proponent of our enhanced interrogation program.

Pressed by the BBC in on his personal view of waterboarding, Presidential Advisor Karl Rove said: "I'm proud that we kept the world safer than it was, by the use of these techniques.

A month investigation by the Guardian and BBC Arabic, published on March , disclosed that "the US sent a veteran of the dirty wars in Central America to oversee Iraqi commando units involved in acts of torture during the American-led occupation.

These American citizens could theoretically be tried by the International Criminal Court even though the US is not a signatory.

But it would have to be referred by the UN security council and, given that the US has a veto on the council, this hypothesis is very improbable.

There is a strong utilitarian argument against torture; namely, that it is ineffective. Information supporting the ineffectiveness of torture goes back centuries.

For example, during witch trials torture was routinely used to try to force subjects to admit their guilt and to identify other witches.

It was found that subjects would make up stories if it meant the torture would cease. There is no scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness.

On the other hand, some have pointed to some specific cases where torture has elicited true information.

A famous example of rejection of the use of torture was cited by the Argentine National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons in whose report, Italian general Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa was reputed to have said in connection with the investigation of the disappearance of prime minister Aldo Moro , "Italy can survive the loss of Aldo Moro.

It would not survive the introduction of torture. Before the emergence of modern policing, torture was an important aspect of policing and the use of it was openly sanctioned and acknowledged by the authority.

In the 21st century, even when states sanction their interrogation methods, torturers often work outside the law. For this reason, some prefer methods that, while unpleasant, leave victims alive and unmarked.

A victim with no visible damage may lack credibility when telling tales of torture, whereas a person missing fingernails or eyes can easily prove claims of torture.

Mental torture, however, can leave scars just as deep and long-lasting as physical torture. However, the most common and prevalent form of torture worldwide in both developed and under-developed countries is beating.

Psychological torture uses non-physical methods that cause psychological suffering. Its effects are not immediately apparent unless they alter the behavior of the tortured person.

Since there is no international political consensus on what constitutes psychological torture, it is often overlooked, denied, and referred to by different names.

Psychological torture is less well known than physical torture and tends to be subtle and much easier to conceal. In practice, the distinctions between physical and psychological torture are often blurred.

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