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Derzeit gilt für die Republik Moldau ein bevorzugter Zugang zum europäischen Markt, die. Die moldauische Regierung hat gezeigt, dass sie entschlossen ist, weiter eng mit der EU zusammenzuarbeiten und die bestehenden Abkommen. Belgien. Flagge von Belgien. Hauptstadt: Brüssel; EU-Amtssprache(n): Niederländisch, Französisch und Deutsch; EU-Mitgliedsland seit: 1. Januar ​. Vor zehn Jahren hob die EU für sechs Länder die Östliche Partnerschaft aus der Taufe. In der früheren Sowjetrepublik Moldau war die. Juni wurde in Brüssel das Assoziierungsabkommen zwischen der EU und der Republik Moldau unterzeichnet. Das moldauische Parlament.

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Die moldauische Regierung hat gezeigt, dass sie entschlossen ist, weiter eng mit der EU zusammenzuarbeiten und die bestehenden Abkommen. Vor zehn Jahren hob die EU für sechs Länder die Östliche Partnerschaft aus der Taufe. In der früheren Sowjetrepublik Moldau war die. Die EU -Mitgliedstaaten, für die Visafreiheit gilt, sind: Die EU Schengenstaaten: Portugal, Spanien, Frankreich, Deutschland, Belgien, Luxemburg, die Niederlande. Unterrichtung über das Inkrafttreten des Assoziierungsabkommens Porno Darstellen der Europäischen Union und der American Dad Online Gucken Atomgemeinschaft und ihren Mitgliedstaaten einerseits und der Republik Moldau andererseits ABl L vom Rumänisch [1] [2] regional auch GagausischRussisch Beste Spielothek in Petersdorf Eins finden Ukrainisch. Fakt ist: Moldawien ist seit ein neutrales Land — keine Regierung hat das in Frage gestellt. Und wir wissen, dass Ihre Unterstützung essentiell wichtig ist, damit ein solcher unabhängiger und kosten- freier Journalismus weiter existieren kann. Daneben gibt es zwei autonome territoriale Einheiten. Mehr Informationen Einverstanden. Wir brauchen Sie! Das Wimbledon 2020 Nadal Djokovic Amt empfiehlt allen Reisenden nachdrücklich ein sicherheitsbewusstes und situationsgerechtes Verhalten. Es Prinzeschen geraten, bei Missbrauchsverdacht auf die Ausstellung einer Quittung und die Darlegung der Rechtsgrundlage zu bestehen, sowie auf das Hinzuziehen eines Moldawien Eu Mitarbeiters. Es gibt keine Autobahnen.

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Die Sprache wird bereits ab dem Alter von acht Jahren in der Beste Spielothek in Obenberg finden gelehrt. Ohne Transnistrien betrug die Einwohnerzahl knapp 3,4 Millionen Menschen. Moldawien Eu, der das Bestechungsgeld angenommen Paypal AuslandsГјberweisung GebГјhren, sitzt heute im Gefängnis. Bei de Parlamentswahlen am Zu wenig, zu spät! Die Republik Moldau hat eine in weiten Teilen freie Marktwirtschaft. In: Spiele Spielen 3000. Wir brauchen Sie!

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Tausende protestieren in Moldau gegen EU-Abkommen Moldawien Eu Für die Ein-, Weiter- und Rückreise mit bestimmten Heimtieren (Hunde, Katzen) ist ein EU -Heimtierausweis sowie ein Nachweis zur. Ist die Aussicht auf einen potenziellen EU-Beitritt noch attraktiv? Moldawien würde gerne der Europäischen Union beitreten. Da herrscht großer. Diesen Status vergibt die EU an Staaten, deren Aufnahmeantrag vom Rat der Libanon, Libyen, Marokko, Moldawien, das besetzte Palästinensische Gebiet. Die EU -Mitgliedstaaten, für die Visafreiheit gilt, sind: Die EU Schengenstaaten: Portugal, Spanien, Frankreich, Deutschland, Belgien, Luxemburg, die Niederlande. Assoziierungsabkommen EU-Moldau. Der Handelsteil (vertieftes und umfassendes Freihandelsabkommen) des Assoziierungsabkommens wurde seit 1. März hat die russische Regierung ein Verbot für den Import von moldauischen und georgischen Weinprodukten in Kraft gesetzt. L Ich Will Spiele Spielen Zuletzt ist Kroatien beigetreten. Der Zeitplan ist ja sowohl unsere Sache als Prinzeschen die Sache Europas. Wie also schätzt Nastase die Rolle Europas ein? Der ausgefüllte Bescheid wird dem betroffenen Drittstaatsangehörigen gegen Empfangsbestätigung ausgehändigt. In: Wolfgang Dahmen Hrsg. Am April russisch.

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Abgerufen am 9. Juniverfasst von Julian Staib Suggerieren Englisch am Prinzeschen Republik. Dezember ; abgerufen am Ein biometrischer Reisepass der Republik Moldau, der noch mind. Spiele To ist Kroatien beigetreten. Auf dem Papier haben und hatten wir ein unabhängiges Justizsystem. Staatspräsident Tomb Deutsch bemüht sich um eine Verbesserung der politischen und wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen zu Russland.

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Da könnte die EU viel mehr tun! Die Republik Moldau hat eine reiche Religionsgeschichte, die jährige Kirchenarchitektur ist auch ein wichtiger Faktor für den Tourismus. Die Einfuhr von Waffen aller Art ist verboten. Gerade im energiepolitischen Bereich besteht eine hohe Abhängigkeit von Moskau. Zuletzt ist Kroatien beigetreten. Das Verteidigungsbudget des Landes gehört zu den Kleinsten der Welt. Die Einfuhr von Fremdwährung ist unbegrenzt möglich, allerdings sind diese ab einem Wert von As Beste Spielothek in Wiedikon finden [update]there are around 1, Internet users in Moldova with overall Internet penetration of Ein erweitertes Bessarabien wurde nach dem Russisch-türkischen Krieg von bis in das Russische Reich integriert. Februar The number of students per 10, inhabitants in Moldova has been constantly growing since the collapse of the Soviet Prinzeschen, reaching in —, and in — September Main article: Music of Moldova. The country's central legislative body is the unicameral Moldovan Parliament Parlamentwhich has seats, and whose members are elected by popular vote on party lists every four years. InBeste Spielothek in Gfohleramt finden a result of the Treaty of BerlinRomania was forced to cede the three counties back to the Russian Empire. Archived from the original on 2 Prinzeschen

Although Alexander I was brought to the throne in by the Hungarians with assistance from Mircea I of Wallachia , this ruler shifted his allegiances towards Poland notably engaging Moldavian forces on the Polish side in the Battle of Grunwald and the Siege of Marienburg , and placed his own choice of rulers in Wallachia.

His reign was one of the most successful in Moldavia's history. A deep crisis was to follow Alexandru's long reign, with his successors battling each other in a succession of wars that divided the country until the murder of Bogdan II and the ascension of Peter III Aaron in During this time, Moldavia was invaded repeatedly by Crimean Tatars and, beginning in the 15th century, by the Turks.

In , the principality became a tributary to the Ottoman Empire , but it retained internal and partial external autonomy. Moldavia finally returned to Ottoman vassalage in While the region of Transnistria was never politically part of the Principality of Moldavia, there were sizable areas which were owned by Moldavian boyars and given by the Moldavian rulers.

The earliest surviving deeds referring to lands beyond the Dniester river date from the 16th century.

While most of today's Moldova came into the Ottoman orbit in the 16th century, a substantial part of Transnistria remained a part of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth until the Second Partition of Poland in In accordance with the Treaty of Bucharest of , and despite numerous protests by Moldavian nobles on behalf of the sovereignty of their principality, the Ottoman Empire of which Moldavia was a vassal ceded to the Russian Empire the eastern half of the territory of the Principality of Moldavia along with Khotyn and old Bessarabia modern Budjak , which Russia had already conquered and annexed.

The new Russian province was called Oblast of Moldavia and Bessarabia , and initially enjoyed a large degree of autonomy. After this autonomy was progressively restricted and in the Oblast was transformed into the Bessarabia Governorate, in a process of state-imposed assimilation , Russification.

As part of this process, the Tsarist administration in Bessarabia gradually removed the Romanian language from official and religious use.

The Treaty of Paris returned the southern part of Bessarabia later organised as the Cahul , Bolgrad and Ismail counties to Moldavia, which remained an autonomous principality and, in , united with Wallachia to form Romania.

In , as a result of the Treaty of Berlin , Romania was forced to cede the three counties back to the Russian Empire.

Over the 19th century, the Russian authorities encouraged the colonization of Bessarabia by Romanians , Russians , Ukrainians , Germans , Bulgarians , Poles , and Gagauzes , primarily in the northern and southern areas vacated by Turks and Nogai Tatar , the latter having been expelled in the s and s, during Russo-Turkish Wars ; [36] [37] [38] [39] the inclusion of the province in the Pale of Settlement also allowed the immigration of more Jews.

World War I brought in a rise in political and cultural ethnic awareness among the inhabitants of the region, as , Bessarabians were drafted into the Russian Army formed in ; within bigger units several "Moldavian Soldiers' Committees" were formed.

The union was conditional upon fulfilment of the agrarian reform , autonomy, and respect for universal human rights.

This union was recognized by the principal Allied Powers in the Treaty of Paris , which however was not ratified by all of its signatories.

In August , the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact and its secret additional protocol were signed, by which Nazi Germany recognized Bessarabia as being within the Soviet sphere of influence , which led the latter to actively revive its claim to the region.

Ethnic Germans left in As part of the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union , Romania regained the territories of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina, and seized a territory which became known as Transnistria Governorate.

Romanian forces, working with the Germans, deported or massacred about , Jews, including , from Bessarabia and Bukovina.

Of the latter, approximately 90, died. During the periods — and —, deportations of locals to the northern Urals , to Siberia , and northern Kazakhstan occurred regularly, with the largest ones on 12—13 June , and 5—6 July , accounting from MSSR alone for 18, [b] and 35, deportees respectively.

In , as a result of a severe drought and excessive delivery quota obligations and requisitions imposed by the Soviet government, the southwestern part of the USSR suffered from a major famine.

In the postwar period, the Soviet government organized the immigration of working age Russian speakers mostly Russians, Belarusians , and Ukrainians , into the new Soviet republic, especially into urbanized areas, partly to compensate for the demographic loss caused by the war and the emigration of and The Soviet government conducted a campaign to promote a Moldovan ethnic identity distinct from that of the Romanians, based on a theory developed during the existence of the Moldavian ASSR.

Official Soviet policy asserted that the language spoken by Moldovans was distinct from the Romanian language see Moldovenism.

To distinguish the two, during the Soviet period, Moldovan was written in the Cyrillic alphabet , in contrast with Romanian, which since had been written in the Latin alphabet.

All independent organizations were severely reprimanded, with the National Patriotic Front leaders being sentenced in to long prison terms.

In the s, amid political conditions created by the glasnost and perestroika , a Democratic Movement of Moldova was formed, which in became known as the nationalist Popular Front of Moldova FPM.

The assembly pressured the authorities of the Moldavian SSR to adopt a language law on 31 August that proclaimed the Moldovan language written in the Latin script to be the state language of the MSSR.

Its identity with the Romanian language was also established. The first democratic elections for the local parliament were held in February and March On 23 June , the Parliament adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the "Soviet Socialist Republic Moldova", which, among other things, stipulated the supremacy of Moldovan laws over those of the Soviet Union.

Moldova received official recognition on 25 December. On 26 December , the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Declaring itself a neutral state , Moldova did not join the military branch of the CIS.

Three months later, on 2 March , the country gained formal recognition as an independent state at the United Nations. In the winter of — clashes occurred between Transnistrian forces, supported by elements of the 14th Army , and the Moldovan police.

Between 2 March and 26 July , the conflict escalated into a military engagement. On 2 January , Moldova introduced a market economy , liberalizing prices, which resulted in rapid inflation.

From to , the country suffered a serious economic crisis, leaving most of the population below the poverty line. In , the government introduced a new national currency, the Moldovan leu , to replace the temporary cupon.

In the parliamentary elections , the Democratic Agrarian Party gained a majority of the seats, setting a turning point in Moldovan politics.

With the nationalist Popular Front now in a parliamentary minority, new measures aiming to moderate the ethnic tensions in the country could be adopted.

Plans for a union with Romania were abandoned, [63] and the new Constitution gave autonomy to the breakaway Transnistria and Gagauzia.

After winning the presidential elections , on 15 January , Petru Lucinschi , the former First Secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party in —91, became the country's second president — , succeeding Mircea Snegur — In , the Constitution was amended, transforming Moldova into a parliamentary republic , with the president being chosen through indirect election rather than direct popular vote.

Winning The country became the first post-Soviet state where a non-reformed Communist Party returned to power. In — relations between Moldova and Russia improved, but then temporarily deteriorated in —, in the wake of the failure of the Kozak memorandum , culminating in the wine exports crisis.

The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova managed to stay in power for eight years. The fragmentation of the liberal bloc helped consolidate its power.

In the April parliamentary elections , the Communist Party won The controversial results of this election sparked civil unrest [69] [70] [71].

On 28 August , this coalition chose a new parliament speaker Mihai Ghimpu in a vote that was boycotted by Communist legislators. Vladimir Voronin , who had been President of Moldova since , eventually resigned on 11 September , but the Parliament failed to elect a new president.

The acting president Mihai Ghimpu instituted the Commission for constitutional reform in Moldova to adopt a new version of the Constitution of Moldova.

After the constitutional referendum aimed to approve the reform failed in September , [72] the parliament was dissolved again and a new parliamentary election was scheduled for 28 November In November , Moldova's central bank took control of Banca de Economii , the country's largest lender, and two smaller institutions, Banca Sociala and Unibank.

Investigations into activities at these three banks uncovered a large-scale fraud by means of fraudulent loans to business entities controlled by a Moldovan-Israeli business oligarch , Ilan Shor , of funds worth about 1 billion U.

Following a period of political instability and massive public protests, a new Government led by Pavel Filip was invested in January Germany's broadcaster Deutsche Welle also raised concerns over the alleged influence of Moldovan oligarch Vladimir Plahotniuc over the Filip government.

In the December presidential election , Socialist, pro-Russian Igor Dodon was elected as the new president of the republic.

In , from 7 June to 15 June, the Moldovan government went through a period of dual power in what is known as the Moldovan constitutional crisis.

According to Moldovan constitutional law, the president may call snap elections if no government is formed after 3 months.

The new coalition and Igor Dodon argued that the president may call snap elections after consulting the parliament but is not obligated.

Additionally, because the election results were verified on 9 March, 3 months should be interpreted as 3 calendar months, not 90 days as was the case.

The former prime minister, Pavel Filip from the Democratic Party, said that new parliamentary elections will be held on 6 September and refused to recognize the new coalition, calling it an illegal government.

After a week of dual government meetings, some protest, and the international community mostly supporting the new government coalition, Pavel Filip stepped down as prime minister but still called for new elections.

In March , due to the COVID pandemic , the government called a "national red code alert" as the number of coronavirus cases in the country rose to six on 13 March.

Government "banned all gatherings of over 50 people until 1 April and closed all schools and kindergartens in an attempt to curb the spread of the virus".

Moldova reported 29 cases of the disease on 17 March. Moldova is a unitary parliamentary representative democratic republic. The Constitution of Moldova sets the framework for the government of the country.

A parliamentary majority of at least two-thirds is required to amend the Constitution of Moldova , which cannot be revised in time of war or national emergency.

Amendments to the Constitution affecting the state's sovereignty, independence, or unity can only be made after a majority of voters support the proposal in a referendum.

Furthermore, no revision can be made to limit the fundamental rights of people enumerated in the Constitution. The country's central legislative body is the unicameral Moldovan Parliament Parlament , which has seats, and whose members are elected by popular vote on party lists every four years.

The head of state is the President of Moldova, who between and was elected by the Moldovan Parliament, requiring the support of three-fifths of the deputies at least 61 votes.

The president of Moldova has been elected by the parliament since , a change designed to decrease executive authority in favour of the legislature.

Nevertheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on 4 March , that this constitutional change adopted in regarding the presidential election was unconstitutional, [88] thus reverting the election method of the President to a two-round system direct election.

The president appoints a prime minister who functions as the head of government , and who in turn assembles a cabinet , both subject to parliamentary approval.

The constitution also establishes an independent Constitutional Court , composed of six judges two appointed by the President, two by Parliament, and two by the Supreme Council of Magistrature , serving six-year terms, during which they are irremovable and not subordinate to any power.

The Court is invested with the power of judicial review over all acts of the parliament, over presidential decrees, and over international treaties, signed by the country.

On 19 December , Moldovan MPs approved raising the retirement age to 63 years [89] from the current level of 57 for women and 62 for men, a reform that is part of a 3-year-old assistance program agreed with the International Monetary Fund.

The retirement age will be lifted gradually by a few months every year until coming fully into effect in Life expectancy in the ex-Soviet country which is among Europe's poorest is In a country with a population of 3.

After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, Moldova's foreign policy was designed with a view to establishing relations with other European countries, neutrality, and European Union integration.

In the country was admitted to the Council of Europe. In , Moldova and the EU established an action plan that sought to improve collaboration between its two neighbouring countries, Romania and Ukraine.

EUBAM assists the Moldovan and Ukrainian governments in approximating their border and customs procedures to EU standards and offers support in both countries' fight against cross-border crime.

After the — War of Transnistria , Moldova sought a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Transnistria region by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and co-operating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions.

The foreign minister of Moldova , Andrei Stratan , repeatedly stated that the Russian troops stationed in the breakaway region were there against the will of the Moldovan government and called on them to leave "completely and unconditionally".

On 29 November , at a summit in Vilnius, Moldova signed an association agreement with the European Union dedicated to the European Union's ' Eastern Partnership ' with ex-Soviet countries.

The signing comes after the accord has been initialed in Vilnius in November It can be said that religious leaders play a role in shaping foreign policy.

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian Government has frequently used its connections with the Russian Orthodox Church to block and stymie the integration of former Soviet states like Moldova into the West.

Moldova has accepted all relevant arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union. On 30 October , Moldova ratified the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe , which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment and provides for the destruction of weapons in excess of those limits.

It does not have nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological weapons. Moldova signed a military agreement with Romania to strengthen regional security.

The agreement is part of Moldova's strategy to reform its military and cooperate with its neighbours. According to Amnesty International , as of "Torture and other ill-treatment in police detention remained widespread; the state failed to carry out prompt and impartial investigations and police officers sometimes evaded penalties.

According to Human Rights Report of the United States Department of State , released in April , "In contrast to the previous year, there were no reports of killings by security forces.

During the year reports of government exercising undue influence over the media substantially decreased.

Moldova is divided into 32 districts raioane , singular raion , three municipalities and two autonomous regions Gagauzia and Transnistria.

Moldova has 66 cities towns , including 13 with municipality status, and communes. Another villages are too small to have a separate administration and are administratively part of either cities 41 of them or communes This makes for a total of 1, localities in Moldova, two of which are uninhabited.

The largest part of the nation lies between two rivers, the Dniester and the Prut. The western border of Moldova is formed by the Prut river, which joins the Danube before flowing into the Black Sea.

The country is landlocked, though it is close to the Black Sea. Moldova's hills are part of the Moldavian Plateau, which geologically originate from the Carpathian Mountains.

In the south, the country has a small flatland, the Bugeac Plain. The territory of Moldova east of the river Dniester is split between parts of the Podolian Plateau , and parts of the Eurasian Steppe.

Comrat is the administrative centre of Gagauzia. Moldova has a climate which is moderately continental; its proximity to the Black Sea leads to the climate being mildly cold in the autumn and winter and relatively cool in the spring and summer.

The heaviest rainfall occurs in early summer and again in October; heavy showers and thunderstorms are common.

Because of the irregular terrain, heavy summer rains often cause erosion and river silting. The highest temperature ever recorded in Moldova was Game animals, such as red deer , roe deer and wild boar can be found in these wooded areas.

The environment of Moldova suffered extreme degradation during the Soviet period, when industrial and agricultural development proceeded without regard for environmental protection.

Deforestation, demographic pressure, as well as excessive hunting eradicated the native saiga herds which is currently threatened with extinction.

They were considered a characteristic animal of Scythia in antiquity. Historian Strabo referred to the Saiga as the kolos , describing it as "between the deer and ram in size" which understandably but wrongly was believed to drink through its nose.

Another animal which was extinct in Moldova since the 18th century until recently was the wisent.

After the breakup from the USSR in , energy shortages, political uncertainty, trade obstacles and weak administrative capacity contributed to the decline of economy.

As a part of an ambitious economic liberalization effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, liberalized all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and liberalized interest rates.

The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to promote growth. The economy reversed from decline in the late s.

Although estimates point to possible modest overvaluation of the real exchange rate, external competitiveness appears broadly adequate as reflected in strong sustained export performance.

Main risks to the near-term outlook relate to serious vulnerabilities and governance issues in the banking sector, policy slippages in the run up to the elections, intensification of geopolitical tensions in the region, and a further slowdown in activity in main trading partners.

Moldova remains highly vulnerable to fluctuations in remittances from workers abroad 24 percent of GDP , exports to the Commonwealth of Independent States CIS and European Union EU 88 per cent of total exports , and donor support about 10 per cent of government spending.

The main transmission channels through which adverse exogenous shocks could impact the Moldovan economy are: remittances also due to potentially returning migrants , external trade, and capital flows.

The economy recovered from the drought-related contraction in The gross average monthly salary in the Republic of Moldova has registered a steady positive growth after , being lei or euros in Corporate governance in the banking sector is a major concern.

In line with FSAP recommendations, significant weaknesses in the legal and regulatory frameworks must be urgently addressed to ensure stability and soundness of the financial sector.

Moldova has achieved a substantial degree of fiscal consolidation in recent years, but this trend is now reversing. Resisting pre-election pressures for selective spending increases and returning to the path of fiscal consolidation would reduce reliance on exceptionally-high donor support.

Structural fiscal reforms would help safeguard sustainability. The implementation of structural reforms outlined in the National Development Strategy NDS Moldova —especially in the business environment, physical infrastructure, and human resources development areas—would help boost potential growth and reduce poverty.

Despite a small contraction in , Moldova's economic performance was among the strongest in the region during — Economic activity grew cumulatively by about 24 percent; consumer price inflation was brought under control; and real wages increased cumulatively by about 13 percent.

This expansion was made possible by adequate macroeconomic stabilization measures and ambitious structural reforms implemented in the wake of the crisis under a Fund-supported program.

A political crisis in early led to policy slippages in the fiscal and financial areas. Despite a sharp decline in poverty in recent years, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe and structural reforms are needed to promote sustainable growth.

While this was significantly lower than 94 percent in , Moldova's poverty rate is still more than double the ECA average of 25 percent.

The NDS—Moldova National Development System , which was published in November , focuses on several critical areas to boost economic development and reduce poverty.

These include education, infrastructure, financial sector, business climate, energy consumption, pension system, and judicial framework.

Following the regional financial crisis in , Moldova has made significant progress towards achieving and retaining macroeconomic and financial stabilization.

It has, furthermore, implemented many structural and institutional reforms that are indispensable for the efficient functioning of a market economy.

These efforts have helped maintain macroeconomic and financial stability under difficult external circumstances, enabled the resumption of economic growth and contributed to establishing an environment conducive to the economy's further growth and development in the medium term.

The government's goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in due to increased agriculture production, to economic policies adopted by the Moldovan government since , and to the receipt of EU trade preferences connecting Moldovan products to the world's largest market.

Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, corruption, higher fuel prices, Russian pressure, and the separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region.

With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine.

In August , work began on a new pipeline between Moldova and Romania that may eventually break Russia's monopoly on Moldova's gas supplies.

The country has a well-established wine industry. Most of the country's wine production is made for export. Many families have their own recipes and grape varieties that have been passed down through the generations.

Moldova's rich soil and temperate continental climate with warm summers and mild winters have made the country one of the most productive agricultural regions since ancient times, and a major supplier of agricultural products in southeastern Europe.

In agriculture, the economic reform started with the land cadastre reform. Shipping on the lower Prut and Nistru rivers plays only a modest role in the country's transportation system.

The first million mobile telephone users were registered in September The number of mobile telephone users in Moldova increased by Nachrichten Europäische Union.

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Unterstützen Sie den unabhängigen europäischen Journalismus Die europäische Demokratie braucht unabhängige Medien.

Mehr Mitglied werden. Alle, die bei uns die Wahlen manipulieren, besitzen doch Villen und Bankkonten in Europa. Da könnte die EU viel mehr tun! Heute ist die Euphorie verflogen.

Das autokratisch regierte Aserbaidschan steht in Verdacht, Mitglieder des Europarats über Jahre bestochen zu haben. Von seinem Büro aus hat Johannes Hahn einen weiten Blick.

Im November trat der Österreicher sein Amt als Kommissar für Europäische Nachbarschaftspolitik und Erweiterungsverhandlungen an, jetzt führt er die Östliche Partnerschaft in ihr zehntes Jahr.

Ist es an der Zeit, die Integrationsstrategie zu überdenken, die Vision von den stabilen, pro-europäisch gesinnten Nachbarstaaten im Osten womöglich sogar aufzugeben?

Und meine Vision ist, was die Nachbarschaft anbelangt - aber das betrifft ehrlich gesagt auch den Balkan: Wir müssen einen Wohlstandsgürtel schaffen, und zwar wie im Osten auch im Süden.

Wohlstand, visa-freies Reisen, Freihandel, eine Vollmitgliedschaft in der EU nicht ausgeschlossen — mit diesen Versprechen an drei der sechs östlichen Partnerländer hatte Hahns Vorgänger, Stefan Füle, seine Amtszeit vor fünf Jahren beendet: Ukraine, Georgien und Moldau unterzeichneten ein Assoziierungsabkommen mit der Europäischen Union — eine konsequente Weiterführung der Östlichen Partnerschaft.

Doch das ist inzwischen ein schweres Erbe. Sie verbrüderten sich mit Russland und umschmeichelten gleichzeitig die westlich geprägten Reformer.

Sie installierten ihre Minister in den Kabinetten, schrieben an Gesetzen mit und verschoben ihre wachsenden Vermögen in Europas Steuerparadiese.

Viele Fördergelder versiegten, bevor sie überhaupt bei der Bevölkerung ankamen. Auch Johannes Hahn fürchtet, dass Hoffnungen enttäuscht wurden.

Und wir versuchen jetzt, in der Art und Weise wie wir das tun, sicherzustellen, dass die Bürger begreifen: Wir tun das für sie.

Inzwischen hat die EU ihre Förderpolitik nachgeschärft: Kredite sind stärker an Bedingungen geknüpft, und sie müssen teilweise vorfinanziert werden.

Kommissar Hahn kann Erfolge vorweisen: Und so hat die Europäische Kommission jüngst noch einmal nachgelegt. Doch was bleibt vom Traum Europa in einem Land wie Moldau - wo Milliardensummen auf Nimmerwiedersehen von Bankkonten verschwinden und Oligarchen ihre Wahlsiege vermutlich kaufen?

Der Oppositionspolitiker ist der Hoffnungsträger des pro-europäischen Wahlbündnisses "Acum". Bei de Parlamentswahlen am Februar hat "Acum" fast 27 Prozent der Stimmen geholt.

Damit wurde es — allen möglichen Wahlmanipulationen zum Trotz - zweitstärkste Kraft. Denn ohne die EU würde es uns heute viel schlechter gehen.

Der soll nicht nur die Verwaltung kontrollieren, sondern auch die Justiz. Offenbar hatte Nastase das im Mai zu spüren bekommen, als die Hauptstadt Kischinau einen neuen Bürgermeister wählte: Damals kandidierte er selbst — und holte überraschend die meisten Stimmen.

Doch ein Gericht erklärte die Wahl für ungültig: Dem Oppositionspolitiker blieb der Wahlsieg verwehrt — trotz spontaner Massendemonstrationen in Kischinau und deutlicher Kritik von seiten der EU.

Wie also schätzt Nastase die Rolle Europas ein? Haben all die Fördergelder nicht am Ende den Falschen geholfen, und der Demokratiebewegung womöglich mehr geschadet als genützt?

Inmitten von reetgedeckten Wohngebäuden, Gewächshäusern und einem Pferdestall unterhält hier die Organisation "EcoVisio" eine Tagungsstätte.

Gerade findet ein Wochenendseminar über "Biomarketing" statt — im Agrarland Moldau ist das ein Zukunftshema.

Das Seminar ist für die Teilnehmer kostenlos, denn es wird von der Europäischen Union gefördert. Und jetzt haben Menschen, die in Moldau etwas bewegen wollen, auch hier die Chance, von Experten zu lernen.

Moldawien Eu

The assembly pressured the authorities of the Moldavian SSR to adopt a language law on 31 August that proclaimed the Moldovan language written in the Latin script to be the state language of the MSSR.

Its identity with the Romanian language was also established. The first democratic elections for the local parliament were held in February and March On 23 June , the Parliament adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the "Soviet Socialist Republic Moldova", which, among other things, stipulated the supremacy of Moldovan laws over those of the Soviet Union.

Moldova received official recognition on 25 December. On 26 December , the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Declaring itself a neutral state , Moldova did not join the military branch of the CIS.

Three months later, on 2 March , the country gained formal recognition as an independent state at the United Nations. In the winter of — clashes occurred between Transnistrian forces, supported by elements of the 14th Army , and the Moldovan police.

Between 2 March and 26 July , the conflict escalated into a military engagement. On 2 January , Moldova introduced a market economy , liberalizing prices, which resulted in rapid inflation.

From to , the country suffered a serious economic crisis, leaving most of the population below the poverty line.

In , the government introduced a new national currency, the Moldovan leu , to replace the temporary cupon. In the parliamentary elections , the Democratic Agrarian Party gained a majority of the seats, setting a turning point in Moldovan politics.

With the nationalist Popular Front now in a parliamentary minority, new measures aiming to moderate the ethnic tensions in the country could be adopted.

Plans for a union with Romania were abandoned, [63] and the new Constitution gave autonomy to the breakaway Transnistria and Gagauzia. After winning the presidential elections , on 15 January , Petru Lucinschi , the former First Secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party in —91, became the country's second president — , succeeding Mircea Snegur — In , the Constitution was amended, transforming Moldova into a parliamentary republic , with the president being chosen through indirect election rather than direct popular vote.

Winning The country became the first post-Soviet state where a non-reformed Communist Party returned to power. In — relations between Moldova and Russia improved, but then temporarily deteriorated in —, in the wake of the failure of the Kozak memorandum , culminating in the wine exports crisis.

The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova managed to stay in power for eight years. The fragmentation of the liberal bloc helped consolidate its power.

In the April parliamentary elections , the Communist Party won The controversial results of this election sparked civil unrest [69] [70] [71].

On 28 August , this coalition chose a new parliament speaker Mihai Ghimpu in a vote that was boycotted by Communist legislators.

Vladimir Voronin , who had been President of Moldova since , eventually resigned on 11 September , but the Parliament failed to elect a new president.

The acting president Mihai Ghimpu instituted the Commission for constitutional reform in Moldova to adopt a new version of the Constitution of Moldova.

After the constitutional referendum aimed to approve the reform failed in September , [72] the parliament was dissolved again and a new parliamentary election was scheduled for 28 November In November , Moldova's central bank took control of Banca de Economii , the country's largest lender, and two smaller institutions, Banca Sociala and Unibank.

Investigations into activities at these three banks uncovered a large-scale fraud by means of fraudulent loans to business entities controlled by a Moldovan-Israeli business oligarch , Ilan Shor , of funds worth about 1 billion U.

Following a period of political instability and massive public protests, a new Government led by Pavel Filip was invested in January Germany's broadcaster Deutsche Welle also raised concerns over the alleged influence of Moldovan oligarch Vladimir Plahotniuc over the Filip government.

In the December presidential election , Socialist, pro-Russian Igor Dodon was elected as the new president of the republic.

In , from 7 June to 15 June, the Moldovan government went through a period of dual power in what is known as the Moldovan constitutional crisis. According to Moldovan constitutional law, the president may call snap elections if no government is formed after 3 months.

The new coalition and Igor Dodon argued that the president may call snap elections after consulting the parliament but is not obligated.

Additionally, because the election results were verified on 9 March, 3 months should be interpreted as 3 calendar months, not 90 days as was the case.

The former prime minister, Pavel Filip from the Democratic Party, said that new parliamentary elections will be held on 6 September and refused to recognize the new coalition, calling it an illegal government.

After a week of dual government meetings, some protest, and the international community mostly supporting the new government coalition, Pavel Filip stepped down as prime minister but still called for new elections.

In March , due to the COVID pandemic , the government called a "national red code alert" as the number of coronavirus cases in the country rose to six on 13 March.

Government "banned all gatherings of over 50 people until 1 April and closed all schools and kindergartens in an attempt to curb the spread of the virus".

Moldova reported 29 cases of the disease on 17 March. Moldova is a unitary parliamentary representative democratic republic. The Constitution of Moldova sets the framework for the government of the country.

A parliamentary majority of at least two-thirds is required to amend the Constitution of Moldova , which cannot be revised in time of war or national emergency.

Amendments to the Constitution affecting the state's sovereignty, independence, or unity can only be made after a majority of voters support the proposal in a referendum.

Furthermore, no revision can be made to limit the fundamental rights of people enumerated in the Constitution. The country's central legislative body is the unicameral Moldovan Parliament Parlament , which has seats, and whose members are elected by popular vote on party lists every four years.

The head of state is the President of Moldova, who between and was elected by the Moldovan Parliament, requiring the support of three-fifths of the deputies at least 61 votes.

The president of Moldova has been elected by the parliament since , a change designed to decrease executive authority in favour of the legislature.

Nevertheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on 4 March , that this constitutional change adopted in regarding the presidential election was unconstitutional, [88] thus reverting the election method of the President to a two-round system direct election.

The president appoints a prime minister who functions as the head of government , and who in turn assembles a cabinet , both subject to parliamentary approval.

The constitution also establishes an independent Constitutional Court , composed of six judges two appointed by the President, two by Parliament, and two by the Supreme Council of Magistrature , serving six-year terms, during which they are irremovable and not subordinate to any power.

The Court is invested with the power of judicial review over all acts of the parliament, over presidential decrees, and over international treaties, signed by the country.

On 19 December , Moldovan MPs approved raising the retirement age to 63 years [89] from the current level of 57 for women and 62 for men, a reform that is part of a 3-year-old assistance program agreed with the International Monetary Fund.

The retirement age will be lifted gradually by a few months every year until coming fully into effect in Life expectancy in the ex-Soviet country which is among Europe's poorest is In a country with a population of 3.

After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, Moldova's foreign policy was designed with a view to establishing relations with other European countries, neutrality, and European Union integration.

In the country was admitted to the Council of Europe. In , Moldova and the EU established an action plan that sought to improve collaboration between its two neighbouring countries, Romania and Ukraine.

EUBAM assists the Moldovan and Ukrainian governments in approximating their border and customs procedures to EU standards and offers support in both countries' fight against cross-border crime.

After the — War of Transnistria , Moldova sought a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Transnistria region by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and co-operating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions.

The foreign minister of Moldova , Andrei Stratan , repeatedly stated that the Russian troops stationed in the breakaway region were there against the will of the Moldovan government and called on them to leave "completely and unconditionally".

On 29 November , at a summit in Vilnius, Moldova signed an association agreement with the European Union dedicated to the European Union's ' Eastern Partnership ' with ex-Soviet countries.

The signing comes after the accord has been initialed in Vilnius in November It can be said that religious leaders play a role in shaping foreign policy.

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian Government has frequently used its connections with the Russian Orthodox Church to block and stymie the integration of former Soviet states like Moldova into the West.

Moldova has accepted all relevant arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union. On 30 October , Moldova ratified the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe , which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment and provides for the destruction of weapons in excess of those limits.

It does not have nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological weapons. Moldova signed a military agreement with Romania to strengthen regional security.

The agreement is part of Moldova's strategy to reform its military and cooperate with its neighbours. According to Amnesty International , as of "Torture and other ill-treatment in police detention remained widespread; the state failed to carry out prompt and impartial investigations and police officers sometimes evaded penalties.

According to Human Rights Report of the United States Department of State , released in April , "In contrast to the previous year, there were no reports of killings by security forces.

During the year reports of government exercising undue influence over the media substantially decreased. Moldova is divided into 32 districts raioane , singular raion , three municipalities and two autonomous regions Gagauzia and Transnistria.

Moldova has 66 cities towns , including 13 with municipality status, and communes. Another villages are too small to have a separate administration and are administratively part of either cities 41 of them or communes This makes for a total of 1, localities in Moldova, two of which are uninhabited.

The largest part of the nation lies between two rivers, the Dniester and the Prut. The western border of Moldova is formed by the Prut river, which joins the Danube before flowing into the Black Sea.

The country is landlocked, though it is close to the Black Sea. Moldova's hills are part of the Moldavian Plateau, which geologically originate from the Carpathian Mountains.

In the south, the country has a small flatland, the Bugeac Plain. The territory of Moldova east of the river Dniester is split between parts of the Podolian Plateau , and parts of the Eurasian Steppe.

Comrat is the administrative centre of Gagauzia. Moldova has a climate which is moderately continental; its proximity to the Black Sea leads to the climate being mildly cold in the autumn and winter and relatively cool in the spring and summer.

The heaviest rainfall occurs in early summer and again in October; heavy showers and thunderstorms are common. Because of the irregular terrain, heavy summer rains often cause erosion and river silting.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Moldova was Game animals, such as red deer , roe deer and wild boar can be found in these wooded areas.

The environment of Moldova suffered extreme degradation during the Soviet period, when industrial and agricultural development proceeded without regard for environmental protection.

Deforestation, demographic pressure, as well as excessive hunting eradicated the native saiga herds which is currently threatened with extinction.

They were considered a characteristic animal of Scythia in antiquity. Historian Strabo referred to the Saiga as the kolos , describing it as "between the deer and ram in size" which understandably but wrongly was believed to drink through its nose.

Another animal which was extinct in Moldova since the 18th century until recently was the wisent. After the breakup from the USSR in , energy shortages, political uncertainty, trade obstacles and weak administrative capacity contributed to the decline of economy.

As a part of an ambitious economic liberalization effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, liberalized all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and liberalized interest rates.

The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to promote growth. The economy reversed from decline in the late s.

Although estimates point to possible modest overvaluation of the real exchange rate, external competitiveness appears broadly adequate as reflected in strong sustained export performance.

Main risks to the near-term outlook relate to serious vulnerabilities and governance issues in the banking sector, policy slippages in the run up to the elections, intensification of geopolitical tensions in the region, and a further slowdown in activity in main trading partners.

Moldova remains highly vulnerable to fluctuations in remittances from workers abroad 24 percent of GDP , exports to the Commonwealth of Independent States CIS and European Union EU 88 per cent of total exports , and donor support about 10 per cent of government spending.

The main transmission channels through which adverse exogenous shocks could impact the Moldovan economy are: remittances also due to potentially returning migrants , external trade, and capital flows.

The economy recovered from the drought-related contraction in The gross average monthly salary in the Republic of Moldova has registered a steady positive growth after , being lei or euros in Corporate governance in the banking sector is a major concern.

In line with FSAP recommendations, significant weaknesses in the legal and regulatory frameworks must be urgently addressed to ensure stability and soundness of the financial sector.

Moldova has achieved a substantial degree of fiscal consolidation in recent years, but this trend is now reversing.

Resisting pre-election pressures for selective spending increases and returning to the path of fiscal consolidation would reduce reliance on exceptionally-high donor support.

Structural fiscal reforms would help safeguard sustainability. The implementation of structural reforms outlined in the National Development Strategy NDS Moldova —especially in the business environment, physical infrastructure, and human resources development areas—would help boost potential growth and reduce poverty.

Despite a small contraction in , Moldova's economic performance was among the strongest in the region during — Economic activity grew cumulatively by about 24 percent; consumer price inflation was brought under control; and real wages increased cumulatively by about 13 percent.

This expansion was made possible by adequate macroeconomic stabilization measures and ambitious structural reforms implemented in the wake of the crisis under a Fund-supported program.

A political crisis in early led to policy slippages in the fiscal and financial areas. Despite a sharp decline in poverty in recent years, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe and structural reforms are needed to promote sustainable growth.

While this was significantly lower than 94 percent in , Moldova's poverty rate is still more than double the ECA average of 25 percent. The NDS—Moldova National Development System , which was published in November , focuses on several critical areas to boost economic development and reduce poverty.

These include education, infrastructure, financial sector, business climate, energy consumption, pension system, and judicial framework.

Following the regional financial crisis in , Moldova has made significant progress towards achieving and retaining macroeconomic and financial stabilization.

It has, furthermore, implemented many structural and institutional reforms that are indispensable for the efficient functioning of a market economy.

These efforts have helped maintain macroeconomic and financial stability under difficult external circumstances, enabled the resumption of economic growth and contributed to establishing an environment conducive to the economy's further growth and development in the medium term.

The government's goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in due to increased agriculture production, to economic policies adopted by the Moldovan government since , and to the receipt of EU trade preferences connecting Moldovan products to the world's largest market.

Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, corruption, higher fuel prices, Russian pressure, and the separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region.

With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. In August , work began on a new pipeline between Moldova and Romania that may eventually break Russia's monopoly on Moldova's gas supplies.

The country has a well-established wine industry. Most of the country's wine production is made for export. Many families have their own recipes and grape varieties that have been passed down through the generations.

Moldova's rich soil and temperate continental climate with warm summers and mild winters have made the country one of the most productive agricultural regions since ancient times, and a major supplier of agricultural products in southeastern Europe.

In agriculture, the economic reform started with the land cadastre reform. Shipping on the lower Prut and Nistru rivers plays only a modest role in the country's transportation system.

The first million mobile telephone users were registered in September The number of mobile telephone users in Moldova increased by In September , Moldova was the first country in the world to launch high-definition voice services HD voice for mobile phones, and the first country in Europe to launch As of [update] , there are around 1,, Internet users in Moldova with overall Internet penetration of Under the variant Moldavians , the term may also be used to refer to all inhabitants of the territory of historical Principality of Moldavia , currently divided among Romania In Romania, the inhabitants from the Republic of Moldova are colloquially called "Bessarabians" basarabeni after the Bessarabia region , in order to be distinguished from the inhabitants of the Romanian Moldavia region who also generally refer to themselves or are referred to by the inhabitants of the other Romanian regions as "Moldavians" moldoveni , but declare Romanian ethnicity.

According to the census preliminary data, 2,, inhabitants lived in Moldova within the areas controlled by the central government , an According to the last census in Transnistria October , the population of the region was ,, a The urbanization rate was The Declaration of Independence names the official language Romanian.

In , the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the name "Romanian", as used in the Declaration of Independence to identify the official language, prevails over the name "Moldovan", given in Article 13 of the Constitution.

At the census which did not include data from the Transnistrian region , Although only 4. Historically Russian was taught in schools as the first foreign language, because of the relationship with the Russian Empire and Soviet Union.

In the 21st century, the primary foreign language taught in the schools is English. Since , the Republic of Moldova has been a full member of La Francophonie.

German was the third-ranked choice. For the census, Orthodox Christians , who make up More than 2. There are 16 state and 15 [] private institutions of higher education in Moldova, with a total of , students, including , in the state institutions and 21, in the private ones.

The number of students per 10, inhabitants in Moldova has been constantly growing since the collapse of the Soviet Union, reaching in —, and in — The National Library of Moldova was founded in The Moldova State University and the Academy of Sciences of Moldova , the main scientific organizations of Moldova, were established in As of [update] , Romania allocates 5, scholarships in high schools and universities for Moldovan students.

The total fertility rate TFR in Moldova was estimated in at 1. In , the average age of women at first birth was Public expenditure on health was 4.

Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the country has seen a decrease in spending on health care and, as a result, the tuberculosis incidence rate in the country has grown.

Emigration is a mass phenomenon in Moldova and has a major impact on the country's demographics and economy. Moldova's cultural tradition has been influenced primarily by the Romanian origins of its majority population, the roots of which go back to the 2nd century AD, the period of Roman colonization in Dacia.

The culture has been also influenced by the Byzantine culture, the neighbouring Magyar and Slavic populations, and later by the Ottoman Turks.

A strong Western European influence in Moldovan literature and arts was prevalent in the 19th century.

During the periods and —89, Moldovans were influenced by Russian and Soviet administrative control as well and by ethnic Russian immigration.

The country's cultural heritage was marked by numerous churches and monasteries built by the Moldavian ruler Stephen the Great in the 15th century, by the works of the later renaissance Metropolitans Varlaam and Dosoftei , and those of scholars such as Grigore Ureche , Miron Costin , Nicolae Milescu , Dimitrie Cantemir [c] and Ion Neculce.

Die Republik Moldau gilt heute als ein captured state , ein gekaperter Staat, in der die regierende Demokratischen Partei PDM allein die Interessen ihres Vorsitzenden, des Oligarchen Vladimir Plahotniuc vertritt [51] [52] [53] , der de facto die moldauische Politik und Wirtschaft kontrolliert.

Nachdem Plahotniuc und seine Demokratische Partei nach der Parlamentswahl in der Republik Moldau zunächst durch ein Regierungsbündnis der Partei der Sozialisten und dem Parteienblock ACUM entmachtet wurde, [57] scheiterte diese Regierung unter Ministerpräsidentin Maia Sandu nach einem von der Demokratischen Partei unterstützten Misstrauensvotum der mitregierenden Sozialisten am November Reibungspunkte zwischen den Nachbarstaaten boten in der Vergangenheit sowohl die Schulden der Republik Moldau bei den rumänischen Elektrizitätswerken als auch die kulturelle Identität der Rumänen, die in der Republik Moldau die Mehrheit stellen.

Eine Bewegung zur Vereinigung von Rumänien und der Moldau kam zwischen und auf; ab jedoch begann sich die Republik Moldau wieder von Rumänien zu distanzieren.

Der rumänische Botschafter wurde zunächst ausgewiesen und die Visumpflicht für rumänische Staatsbürger wieder eingeführt.

Rumänien plädiert für den Erhalt der territorialen Integrität des Nachbarlandes und lehnt den transnistrischen Separatismus ab. Dezember kündigte die Europäische Kommission ein umfangreiches Freihandelsabkommen mit der Republik Moldau an.

Entsprechende Verhandlungen wurden als Teil des geplanten Assoziierungsabkommens aufgenommen. Juni wurde in Brüssel das wirtschaftliche und politische Assoziierungsabkommen zwischen der Republik Moldau und der EU geschlossen.

Juli hat das moldauische Parlament das EU-Assoziierungsabkommen ratifiziert. Allgemein wird von westlichen Beobachtern angenommen, dass Russland den moldauischen Kurs einer Annäherung an die Europäische Union mit Argwohn verfolgt und diesen zum Teil auch zu behindern versucht.

Im November verhängte Russland einen Einfuhrstopp für moldauischen Wein, weil dort Spuren von Plastik-Weichmachern gefunden wurden, obwohl die gemessenen Werte immer noch unter denen der für russisches und europäisches Trinkwasser erlaubten lagen.

Gerade im energiepolitischen Bereich besteht eine hohe Abhängigkeit von Moskau. Die moldauische Regierung befürchtet daher, der Kreml könnte in der Zukunft verstärkt auf politische und wirtschaftliche Druckmittel zurückgreifen, um die europäische Integration des Landes zu torpedieren.

Die Republik Moldau wurde am Andere politische Organisationen, deren Mitglied die Republik Moldau ist, sind:. Die moldauischen Streitkräfte gliedern sich in Heer und Luftstreitkräfte.

Eine Marine existiert aufgrund der Binnenlage des Landes nicht. In der Republik Moldau existiert die Wehrpflicht. Der Dienst dauert aktuell 12 Monate.

Das Verteidigungsbudget des Landes gehört zu den Kleinsten der Welt. Transnistrien unterhält eigene Streitkräfte.

Raion unterteilt. Daneben gibt es zwei autonome territoriale Einheiten. Es gibt keine elektrifizierten Strecken, der Verkehr wird mit Dieseltriebfahrzeugen durchgeführt.

Im Moment gibt es im internationalen Personenverkehr direkte Verbindungen u. Der inländische Bahnverkehr ist wegen des sehr geringen Angebots unbedeutend.

Juli statt. Es handelte sich um einen Charterflug der Lufthansa , auf dem Passagiere mit einem Airbus A befördert wurden.

Ein seit Anfang andauernder Konflikt im Luftfahrtsektor konnte beigelegt werden. In der Republik Moldau erscheinen vier national verbreitete Tageszeitungen.

RMI stellt Sendungen in rumänischer, englischer, russischer, französischer und spanischer Sprache her, die über das Internet verbreitet werden.

Die Republik Moldau lebt vor allem von der Landwirtschaft sowie von der damit verbundenen Industrie. Das Klima begünstigt Obst- und Weinbau.

Die hohe Luftqualität verdankt das Land dem Umstand, dass es kein Industriestaat ist. Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt pro Kopf betrug im selben Jahr ca.

Die Republik Moldau hat eine in weiten Teilen freie Marktwirtschaft. Unterbeschäftigung ist jedoch verbreitet und die Löhne sehr niedrig.

Seit hat sich infolge des ungelösten Transnistrien-Konflikts die wirtschaftliche Lage drastisch verschlechtert. Hierbei ist aber die enorme Bedeutung der Schattenwirtschaft zu beachten, durch die das tatsächliche Einkommen Vieler teilweise enorm gesteigert wird.

Die offiziellen Statistiken sind daher nur begrenzt aussagekräftig. Einige Lebensmittel, wie z. Seit hat sich das Wachstum des BIP kaufkraftbereinigt prozentual wie folgt entwickelt: [4] [90] [91].

Das Land exportiert vor allem Nahrungs- und Genussmittel v. Wein sowie Textilien und Maschinen. Die wichtigsten Zielländer sind:. März hat die russische Regierung ein Verbot für den Import von moldauischen und georgischen Weinprodukten in Kraft gesetzt.

Das Verbot, das offiziellen Angaben zufolge wegen zu hoher Schadstoffbelastungen erfolgt sein soll, führte zu heftiger Kritik seitens der betroffenen Weinproduzenten in der Republik Moldau und Georgien.

Der Staatshaushalt umfasste Ausgaben in Höhe von umgerechnet 2,46 Mrd. US-Dollar , dem standen Einnahmen von 2,29 Mrd.

US-Dollar gegenüber. Laut einer weltweiten Studie der Universität Leeds vom Februar ist die Republik Moldau das einzige Land Europas, dessen Entwicklung sich innerhalb der ökologischen Belastungsgrenzen vollzieht.

Traditionell hat die französische Sprache im Bildungssystem der Republik Moldau einen hohen Stellenwert. Die Sprache wird bereits ab dem Alter von acht Jahren in der Grundschule gelehrt.

Die Anzahl der Schüler, die Französisch lernen, ist doppelt so hoch wie die Anzahl derer, die Englisch lernen. Eine weitere wesentliche Traditionslinie ist die Musik der Hirten, die sich unter anderem im vorherrschenden solistischen Gesang — während Chorgesang eher selten ist, in der engen Verbindung von Vokal- und Instrumentalmelodien, in der Verwendung bestimmter Musikinstrumente und in einer epischen Liedtradition zeigt.

Jahrhundert überliefert. Zeremonielle und unterhaltende Volkstänze sind ein wesentlicher Teil der Musikkultur und kommen in über namentlich benannten Variationen vor.

In ihrer Gestalt und rituellen Funktion stehen sie mit anderen regionalen Tänzen in der Karpatenregion und auf der Balkanhalbinsel in Beziehung.

Die bulgarische Minderheit pflegt eine eigene Volksmusiktradition ihrer ostthrakischen Heimat, in der antiphonale Gesänge vorkommen.

Die Musik der Gagausen enthält die meisten Elemente aus der osmanischen Musik, zu der reich ornamentierte komplexe Melodien und Rhythmen gehören.

Eine der Republik Moldau zuzuordnende klassische Musik entstand Ende des Jahrhunderts, als in den Opern russischer Komponisten Elemente moldauischer Volksmusik auftauchten.

Dort wurde , unter rumänischer Regierung, das Unirea-Konservatorium eingerichtet, die erste höhere Bildungseinrichtung in Bessarabien, welche auch die professionelle Musikausbildung beförderte.

Die in den er Jahren gegründeten Sinfonieorchester mussten sich nach einer Zwangspause während des Zweiten Weltkriegs in der sozialistischen Zeit der sowjetischen Kulturpolitik unterordnen.

Nach der Unabhängigkeit begann die musikalische Rückbesinnung auf die Volksmusik. Die nationale Kultur soll auf der einen Seite von ausländischen Einflüssen befreit werden, auf der anderen Seite gibt es Bestrebungen, eigene musikalische Elemente mit den Neuerungen der internationalen klassischen Musikszene zu verbinden.

Man findet auch Einflüsse der russischen , griechischen und der türkischen Küche vor. Der Klassizismus des Unter der Herrschaft des osmanischen Imperiums vom Jahrhundert wurden Kirchen oft heimlich gebaut.

Die Kirche wurde halb in den Boden eingegraben, später säkularisiert und zu einem Stall umfunktioniert. Die intensivste Gründungsperiode in der Geschichte der moldauischen Architektur ist das letzte Viertel des Russland war im Laufe des gesamten Jahrhunderts bemüht, seinen Einfluss in Bessarabien zu festigen.

So war man bestrebt, den russischen Stil in der Kirchenarchitektur durchzusetzen. Das Russische Reich sparte nicht an Geld für den Kirchenbau.

Viele moldauische Burgen aus dem Mittelalter historische Gebiete waren z. Fürstentum Moldau , Bessarabien liegen heute auf den Territorien Rumäniens und der Ukraine und nur noch wenige auf moldauischem Territorium, besonders zu nennen hier die Burg Soroca und die zur Festung erweiterte Burg Bender Tighina.

Einige davon könnten als Stadtpalais angesehen werden. Moldauische Sportvereine, die gelegentlich in Wettbewerben auf europäischer Ebene spielen, sind:.

Seit nahm die Republik Moldau an vier Olympischen Sommerspielen teil. Zu den Spielen in China entsandte das Land 31 Athleten.

Insgesamt errangen die moldauischen Athleten fünf Medaillen bei olympischen Spielen. Der Club wurde mehrmals Europa- und Weltmeister. Die letzten beiden Länderspiele gegen Polen und die Ukraine wurden deutlich gewonnen.

Der Rugby-Verband umfasst sieben Vereine mit registrierten Spielern. Siehe auch : Weinbau in der Republik Moldau. Siehe auch : Liste der Städte in der Republik Moldau.

Accesat la 5 decembrie Abgerufen am 9. In den vergangenen Monaten hat Bukarest über Moldaviern rumänische Pässe ausgestellt und will damit seine Bevölkerungszahl in die Höhe treiben.

Rumäniens Staatschef will sein Volk mehren — und setzt auf seltsame Methoden. Die neuen Beitrittskandidaten der Europäischen Union stehen früh auf.

Wie alle in der Schlange beantragt er einen rumänischen Pass. Schon jetzt haben knapp eine Million Moldauer ihrer Heimat, deren Wirtschaftsleistung pro Kopf gerade einmal die des Sudan erreicht, den Rücken gekehrt.

Sie verdingen sich als Gastarbeiter im Ausland, meist illegal. Rund Während Bukarest seinen Nachbarn als einen Vorposten der Europäischen Union darstellt, befürworten die anderen Mitgliedsstaaten seine Politik der Passgewährung für rumänisch sprechende aus der Republik Moldau nicht, berichtet die Bukarester Tageszeitung.

Moldawien Eu Video

Parlamentswahl in Moldau: EU besorgt über Parteiausschluss Bischof der gebildeten Diözese ist Anton Koca. Heute ist die Euphorie verflogen. Sie installierten ihre Minister in den Kabinetten, schrieben an Gesetzen mit und verschoben ihre wachsenden Vermögen in Europas Steuerparadiese. Die moldauischen Streitkräfte gliedern sich in Heer und Luftstreitkräfte. Inmitten von reetgedeckten Wohngebäuden, Gewächshäusern Beste Spielothek in Lehre finden einem Pferdestall unterhält hier die Organisation "EcoVisio" eine Tagungsstätte. Personalausweis immer mitgeführt Prinzeschen. Die moldauische Regierung befürchtet daher, Awv-Meldepflicht Beachten Was PaГџiert Kreml könnte in der Zukunft verstärkt auf politische und wirtschaftliche Druckmittel zurückgreifen, um die europäische Integration des Landes zu torpedieren. Prinzeschen Sie den Coole Spiele europäischen Journalismus Die europäische Demokratie braucht unabhängige Medien. Popular alcoholic beverages are divin Moldovan brandybeerand local wine. On 2 JanuaryMoldova introduced a market economyliberalizing prices, which resulted in rapid inflation. September ]. Sie konnte somit an die Macht zurückkehren, Voronin wurde vom Parlament zum Präsidenten gewählt. In: Wolfgang Dahmen Hrsg.

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