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Local concentrations of mass known as planetesimals form, and these accelerate the accretion process by drawing in additional material by their gravitational attraction.
These concentrations become ever denser until they collapse inward under gravity to form protoplanets. When the protostar has grown such that it ignites to form a star , the surviving disk is removed from the inside outward by photoevaporation , the solar wind , Poynting—Robertson drag and other effects.
Protoplanets that have avoided collisions may become natural satellites of planets through a process of gravitational capture, or remain in belts of other objects to become either dwarf planets or small bodies.
The energetic impacts of the smaller planetesimals as well as radioactive decay will heat up the growing planet, causing it to at least partially melt.
The interior of the planet begins to differentiate by mass, developing a denser core. With the discovery and observation of planetary systems around stars other than the Sun, it is becoming possible to elaborate, revise or even replace this account.
The level of metallicity —an astronomical term describing the abundance of chemical elements with an atomic number greater than 2 helium —is now thought to determine the likelihood that a star will have planets.
There are eight planets in the Solar System , which are in increasing distance from the Sun :. Jupiter is the largest, at Earth masses, whereas Mercury is the smallest, at 0.
An exoplanet extrasolar planet is a planet outside the Solar System. As of 1 August , there are 4, confirmed exoplanets in 3, systems , with systems having more than one planet.
These pulsar planets are believed to have formed from the unusual remnants of the supernova that produced the pulsar, in a second round of planet formation, or else to be the remaining rocky cores of giant planets that survived the supernova and then decayed into their current orbits.
The first confirmed discovery of an extrasolar planet orbiting an ordinary main-sequence star occurred on 6 October , when Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva announced the detection of an exoplanet around 51 Pegasi.
From then until the Kepler mission most known extrasolar planets were gas giants comparable in mass to Jupiter or larger as they were more easily detected.
The catalog of Kepler candidate planets consists mostly of planets the size of Neptune and smaller, down to smaller than Mercury.
There are types of planets that do not exist in the Solar System: super-Earths and mini-Neptunes , which could be rocky like Earth or a mixture of volatiles and gas like Neptune—a radius of 1.
Another possible type of planet is carbon planets , which form in systems with a higher proportion of carbon than in the Solar System.
A study, analyzing gravitational microlensing data, estimates an average of at least 1. On December 20, , the Kepler Space Telescope team reported the discovery of the first Earth-size exoplanets , Keplere  and Keplerf ,  orbiting a Sun-like star , Kepler Around 1 in 5 Sun-like [c] stars have an "Earth-sized" [d] planet in the habitable [e] zone, so the nearest would be expected to be within 12 light-years distance from Earth.
There are exoplanets that are much closer to their parent star than any planet in the Solar System is to the Sun, and there are also exoplanets that are much farther from their star.
Mercury , the closest planet to the Sun at 0. The Kepler system has five of its planets in shorter orbits than Mercury's, all of them much more massive than Mercury.
Neptune is 30 AU from the Sun and takes years to orbit, but there are exoplanets that are hundreds of AU from their star and take more than a thousand years to orbit, e.
A planetary-mass object PMO , planemo ,  or planetary body is a celestial object with a mass that falls within the range of the definition of a planet: massive enough to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium to be rounded under its own gravity , but not enough to sustain core fusion like a star.
These include dwarf planets , which are rounded by their own gravity but not massive enough to clear their own orbit , the larger moons , and free-floating planemos, which may have been ejected from a system rogue planets or formed through cloud-collapse rather than accretion sometimes called sub-brown dwarfs.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a true planet nor a natural satellite; it is in direct orbit of a star, and is massive enough for its gravity to compress it into a hydrostatically equilibrious shape usually a spheroid , but has not cleared the neighborhood of other material around its orbit.
Alan Stern , who proposed the term 'dwarf planet', has argued that location should not matter and that only geophysical attributes should be taken into account geophysical planet definition , and that dwarf planets are thus a subtype of planet.
However, the IAU accepted the term rather than the more neutral 'planetoid' but decided to classify dwarf planets as a separate category of object.
IAU has recognized three Ceres , Pluto and Eris and assigned the naming of two additional candidates, Haumea and Makemake , to the IAU dwarf-planet naming committee, though only Pluto has been demonstrated to meet the definition.
Several computer simulations of stellar and planetary system formation have suggested that some objects of planetary mass would be ejected into interstellar space.
Stars form via the gravitational collapse of gas clouds, but smaller objects can also form via cloud-collapse. Planetary-mass objects formed this way are sometimes called sub-brown dwarfs.
Binary systems of sub-brown dwarfs are theoretically possible; Oph was initially thought to be a binary system of a brown dwarf of 14 Jupiter masses and a sub-brown dwarf of 7 Jupiter masses, but further observations revised the estimated masses upwards to greater than 13 Jupiter masses, making them brown dwarfs according to the IAU working definitions.
In close binary star systems one of the stars can lose mass to a heavier companion. Accretion-powered pulsars may drive mass loss. The shrinking star can then become a planetary-mass object.
Some large satellites moons are of similar size or larger than the planet Mercury , e. Jupiter's Galilean moons and Titan. Alan Stern has argued that location should not matter and that only geophysical attributes should be taken into account in the definition of a planet, and proposes the term satellite planet for a planet-sized satellite.
Rogue planets in stellar clusters have similar velocities to the stars and so can be recaptured. They are typically captured into wide orbits between and 10 5 AU.
It is almost independent of the planetary mass. Single and multiple planets could be captured into arbitrary unaligned orbits, non-coplanar with each other or with the stellar host spin, or pre-existing planetary system.
Although each planet has unique physical characteristics, a number of broad commonalities do exist among them. Some of these characteristics, such as rings or natural satellites, have only as yet been observed in planets in the Solar System, whereas others are also commonly observed in extrasolar planets.
According to current definitions, all planets must revolve around stars; thus, any potential " rogue planets " are excluded.
In the Solar System, all the planets orbit the Sun in the same direction as the Sun rotates counter-clockwise as seen from above the Sun's north pole.
At least one extrasolar planet, WASPb , has been found to orbit in the opposite direction to its star's rotation. No planet's orbit is perfectly circular, and hence the distance of each varies over the course of its year.
The closest approach to its star is called its periastron perihelion in the Solar System , whereas its farthest separation from the star is called its apastron aphelion.
As a planet approaches periastron, its speed increases as it trades gravitational potential energy for kinetic energy, just as a falling object on Earth accelerates as it falls; as the planet reaches apastron, its speed decreases, just as an object thrown upwards on Earth slows down as it reaches the apex of its trajectory.
Planets also have varying degrees of axial tilt; they lie at an angle to the plane of their stars' equators. This causes the amount of light received by each hemisphere to vary over the course of its year; when the northern hemisphere points away from its star, the southern hemisphere points towards it, and vice versa.
Each planet therefore has seasons, changes to the climate over the course of its year. The time at which each hemisphere points farthest or nearest from its star is known as its solstice.
Each planet has two in the course of its orbit; when one hemisphere has its summer solstice, when its day is longest, the other has its winter solstice, when its day is shortest.
The varying amount of light and heat received by each hemisphere creates annual changes in weather patterns for each half of the planet.
Jupiter's axial tilt is very small, so its seasonal variation is minimal; Uranus, on the other hand, has an axial tilt so extreme it is virtually on its side, which means that its hemispheres are either perpetually in sunlight or perpetually in darkness around the time of its solstices.
The planets rotate around invisible axes through their centres. A planet's rotation period is known as a stellar day. Most of the planets in the Solar System rotate in the same direction as they orbit the Sun, which is counter-clockwise as seen from above the Sun's north pole , the exceptions being Venus  and Uranus,  which rotate clockwise, though Uranus's extreme axial tilt means there are differing conventions on which of its poles is "north", and therefore whether it is rotating clockwise or anti-clockwise.
The rotation of a planet can be induced by several factors during formation. A net angular momentum can be induced by the individual angular momentum contributions of accreted objects.
The accretion of gas by the giant planets can also contribute to the angular momentum. Finally, during the last stages of planet building, a stochastic process of protoplanetary accretion can randomly alter the spin axis of the planet.
However, for "hot" Jupiters, their proximity to their stars means that they are tidally locked i. This means, they always show one face to their stars, with one side in perpetual day, the other in perpetual night.
The defining dynamic characteristic of a planet is that it has cleared its neighborhood. A planet that has cleared its neighborhood has accumulated enough mass to gather up or sweep away all the planetesimals in its orbit.
In effect, it orbits its star in isolation, as opposed to sharing its orbit with a multitude of similar-sized objects. This characteristic was mandated as part of the IAU 's official definition of a planet in August, This criterion excludes such planetary bodies as Pluto , Eris and Ceres from full-fledged planethood, making them instead dwarf planets.
A planet's defining physical characteristic is that it is massive enough for the force of its own gravity to dominate over the electromagnetic forces binding its physical structure, leading to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium.
This effectively means that all planets are spherical or spheroidal. Up to a certain mass, an object can be irregular in shape, but beyond that point, which varies depending on the chemical makeup of the object, gravity begins to pull an object towards its own centre of mass until the object collapses into a sphere.
Mass is also the prime attribute by which planets are distinguished from stars. The upper mass limit for planethood is roughly 13 times Jupiter's mass for objects with solar-type isotopic abundance , beyond which it achieves conditions suitable for nuclear fusion.
Other than the Sun, no objects of such mass exist in the Solar System; but there are exoplanets of this size.
The Jupiter-mass limit is not universally agreed upon and the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia includes objects up to 60 Jupiter masses,  and the Exoplanet Data Explorer up to 24 Jupiter masses.
Its mass is roughly half that of the planet Mercury. Every planet began its existence in an entirely fluid state; in early formation, the denser, heavier materials sank to the centre, leaving the lighter materials near the surface.
Each therefore has a differentiated interior consisting of a dense planetary core surrounded by a mantle that either is or was a fluid. The terrestrial planets are sealed within hard crusts ,  but in the giant planets the mantle simply blends into the upper cloud layers.
The terrestrial planets have cores of elements such as iron and nickel , and mantles of silicates. Jupiter and Saturn are believed to have cores of rock and metal surrounded by mantles of metallic hydrogen.
All of the Solar System planets except Mercury  have substantial atmospheres because their gravity is strong enough to keep gases close to the surface.
The larger giant planets are massive enough to keep large amounts of the light gases hydrogen and helium , whereas the smaller planets lose these gases into space.
Planetary atmospheres are affected by the varying insolation or internal energy, leading to the formation of dynamic weather systems such as hurricanes , on Earth , planet-wide dust storms on Mars , a greater-than-Earth-sized anticyclone on Jupiter called the Great Red Spot , and holes in the atmosphere on Neptune.
Hot Jupiters, due to their extreme proximities to their host stars, have been shown to be losing their atmospheres into space due to stellar radiation, much like the tails of comets.
One important characteristic of the planets is their intrinsic magnetic moments , which in turn give rise to magnetospheres.
The presence of a magnetic field indicates that the planet is still geologically alive. In other words, magnetized planets have flows of electrically conducting material in their interiors, which generate their magnetic fields.
These fields significantly change the interaction of the planet and solar wind. A magnetized planet creates a cavity in the solar wind around itself called the magnetosphere, which the wind cannot penetrate.
The magnetosphere can be much larger than the planet itself. In contrast, non-magnetized planets have only small magnetospheres induced by interaction of the ionosphere with the solar wind, which cannot effectively protect the planet.
Of the eight planets in the Solar System, only Venus and Mars lack such a magnetic field. Of the magnetized planets the magnetic field of Mercury is the weakest, and is barely able to deflect the solar wind.
Ganymede's magnetic field is several times larger, and Jupiter's is the strongest in the Solar System so strong in fact that it poses a serious health risk to future manned missions to its moons.
The magnetic fields of the other giant planets are roughly similar in strength to that of Earth, but their magnetic moments are significantly larger.
The magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune are strongly tilted relative the rotational axis and displaced from the centre of the planet. In , a team of astronomers in Hawaii observed an extrasolar planet around the star HD , which appeared to be creating a sunspot on the surface of its parent star.
Several planets or dwarf planets in the Solar System such as Neptune and Pluto have orbital periods that are in resonance with each other or with smaller bodies this is also common in satellite systems.
All except Mercury and Venus have natural satellites , often called "moons". Earth has one, Mars has two, and the giant planets have numerous moons in complex planetary-type systems.
Many moons of the giant planets have features similar to those on the terrestrial planets and dwarf planets, and some have been studied as possible abodes of life especially Europa.
The four giant planets are also orbited by planetary rings of varying size and complexity. The rings are composed primarily of dust or particulate matter, but can host tiny ' moonlets ' whose gravity shapes and maintains their structure.
Although the origins of planetary rings is not precisely known, they are believed to be the result of natural satellites that fell below their parent planet's Roche limit and were torn apart by tidal forces.
No secondary characteristics have been observed around extrasolar planets. The sub-brown dwarf Cha , which has been described as a rogue planet , is believed to be orbited by a tiny protoplanetary disc  and the sub-brown dwarf OTS 44 was shown to be surrounded by a substantial protoplanetary disk of at least 10 Earth masses.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the astronomical object. For planets in astrology, see Planets in astrology.
For other uses, see Planet disambiguation. Class of astronomical body directly orbiting a star or stellar remnant.
Further information: History of astronomy , Definition of planet , and Timeline of Solar System astronomy. Main article: Babylonian astronomy.
See also: Greek astronomy. Main articles: Indian astronomy and Hindu cosmology. Main articles: Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world and Cosmology in medieval Islam.
See also: Heliocentrism. Main article: IAU definition of planet. See also: List of former planets. See also: Weekday names and Naked-eye planet.
Main article: Nebular hypothesis. Supernova remnant ejecta producing planet-forming material. Solar System — sizes but not distances are to scale.
The Sun and the eight planets of the Solar System. The inner planets , Mercury , Venus , Earth , and Mars. Main article: Solar System.
See also: List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System. Main article: Exoplanet. Main article: Dwarf planet.
Main article: Rogue planet. See also: Five-planet Nice model. Main article: Sub-brown dwarf. Main article: Satellite planet. Main articles: Orbit and Orbital elements.
Main article: Axial tilt. Main article: Clearing the neighbourhood. Main article: Planetary mass. Main article: Planetary differentiation.
Main articles: Atmosphere and Extraterrestrial atmospheres. See also: Extraterrestrial skies. Main article: Magnetosphere. Main articles: Natural satellite and Planetary ring.
Astronomy portal Solar System portal Space portal. The official definition applies only to the Solar System, whereas the definition applies to planets around other stars.
The extrasolar planet issue was deemed too complex to resolve at the IAU conference. The term "satellite" had already begun to be used to distinguish such bodies from those around which they orbited "primary planets".
International Astronomical Union. Retrieved Archived from the original on Retrieved 10 May The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. New York Times.
Kubas; J. Beaulieu; M. Dominik; et al. Bibcode : Natur. Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 7 November Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
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Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Astronomy in China, Korea and Japan Walker ed. The Copernican Revolution. Harvard University Press.
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Astrological reports to Assyrian kings. State Archives of Assyria. Helsinki University Press. Part One. Journal of the American Oriental Society.
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Bibcode : eaa.. Razaullah Ansari History of oriental astronomy: proceedings of the joint discussion at the 23rd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, organised by the Commission 41 History of Astronomy , held in Kyoto, August 25—26, Retrieved 11 February The Galileo Project.
Naval Observatory. The Free Press. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Bibcode : PNAS Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm.
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Bibcode : ApJ University of California and the Carnegie Institution. Alan Spitzer Finds Cosmic Oddball".
The Astrophysical Journal. Earth Planet. Brown Dwarfs. Bibcode : IAUS.. Satellite imagery is making this possible at a scale never before possible.
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